Contemporary history of Ukraine (from August 24th,1991 till nowadays)

In the summer 1991 the opposition of center and society forces, especially in Moscow, reached the critical point. On the one hand, requirements to accelerate the society reforming, faster to liquidate outmoded structures, to strengthen the process of society democratization, lawful state creation, on the other hand - the attempts to keep domination of party-bureaucratic structures, monopoly position of military-industrial complex, fidelity to Stalinism and to everything connected with it, amplified. As a result, on August, 19-21th there was the attempt of insurrection when President Gorbachev was outwardly isolated in Crimea, and the same time the State Committee on state of emergency (GKChP) was created as a part of the of heads of the USSR in which power ministers prevailed.
Но также возникли серьезные противоречия 
But also there were serious contradictions between the political center of Soviet Union and republics, especially, between their leaders - Gorbachev and President of Russian Federation Yeltsin, who was garnering an authority.
Сегодняшнее молодое поколение
Today's young generation only from the parents' mouths and senior companions knows about the events of August 1991 when opposition reached the apogee that could lead to the present civil war.
В рамках раздела хотел бы 
Within the limits of the section by means of documents language I would like to remind of what GKChP wanted.
RESOLUTION # 1
Of State committee
Of state of emergency of the USSR

 
With a view of protection of the vital interests of people in USSR, independence and territorial integrity of the country, restoration of legality, law and order, stabilization of conditions, overcoming of the hardest crisis, non-admission of chaos, anarchy and fratricidal civil war the State committee on state of emergency in the USSR decides:
1. To provide strict observance of the state of emergency mode according to the Law of USSR «About the legal regime of state of emergency» and decisions of GKChP for all governing bodies of USSR of allied and autonomous republics, edges, areas, cities, regions, settlements and villages. In case of inability to provide the performance of this mode, the full powers of corresponding the governing bodies stop, and realisation of their functions is assigned on special representatives of GKChP of USSR.
2. Immediately to disband the power and management structures, militarized formations operating contrary to the Constitution of the USSR and laws of the USSR.
3. To consider henceforth the laws and the decisions of governing bodies contradicting the Constitution of the USSR and laws of the USSR.
4. To suspend the activity of political parties, public organisations and mass movements interfering normalisation of conditions.
5. Because the state committee on state of emergency in the USSR temporarily incurs functions of Security council of the USSR, the activity of the last one stops.
6. Citizens, establishments and organizations must immediately hand over all kinds of fire-arms, ammunition, explosives, military technology and equipment, that are kept illegally. The Ministry of Internal Affairs, KGB and Ministry of Defence of the USSR must provide the strict performance of the given requirement. In case of refusal it must be withdrawn under the compulsion with infringers bringing to strict criminal and administrative responsibility.
7. Office of Public Prosecutor, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, KGB and Ministry of Defence of the USSR must organize the effective interaction of law enforcement bodies and Armed forces to protect the public order and safety of state, society and citizens according to the Law of the USSR «About the legal regime of state of emergency» and decisions of GKChP of the USSR. Carrying out of meetings, street processions, demonstrations, and strikes are not allowed. In necessary to establish the curfew, territory patrol, to carry out examination, to take measures on strengthening of boundary and customs mode. It's necessary to take over the control and in some cases under protection the major state and economic objects, and also the life-support systems. Resolutely to stop distribution of seditious rumors, actions provoking infringements of the law and order and incitement of ethnic hatred, disobedience to the officials providing an observance of state of emergency mode.
8. To establish the control over mass media, having assigned its realisation to specially created body at GKChp of the USSR.
9. Governing bodies, heads of establishments and the enterprises must take measures on improving of organisation, putting in order and discipline in all spheres of social life. To provide the normal functioning of enterprises of all branches of national economy, the strict performance of measures on preservation and restoration for stabilisation of vertical and horizontal communications between subjects of managing in all territory of the USSR, strict performance of the established volumes of output, deliveries of raw materials, materials and completing products. To establish and support the policy of strict economy of material and currency means, to develop and conduct concrete measures on the struggle against mismanagement and squandering of national good. Resolutely to combat the second economy, inevitably to apply measures of criminal and administrative responsibility on the facts of corruption, plunders, gamble, concealments of the goods from sale, mismanagement and other offences in the economy sphere. To create favorable conditions for increasing of real contribution of all kinds of enterprise activity which is carried out according to laws of USSR, in economic potential of the country and maintenance of pressing needs of the population.
10. To consider the work on the constant basis in the power and management structures with the engagement by enterprise activity incompatible.
11. The cabinet of the USSR in week term must carry out the inventory of all cash resources of foodstuffs and industrial essential commodities, to report on the people, what the country has, to take under the strict control their safety and distribution. To cancel any restrictions interfering the moving of the foodstuffs and consumer goods, and also material resources for their manufacture, to supervise observance of such order on the territory of the USSR rigidly. To pay special attention to the prime supply of preschool child care centers, children's homes, schools, comprehensive special and higher educational institutions, hospitals, as well as pensioners and invalids. In week term to make offers on streamlining, freezing and reduction of prices on separate kinds of industrial goods and provisions, first of all for children, services to the population and public catering, and also increase of salary, pensions, grants and payments of indemnifications to various categories of citizens.
In fortnight term to develop the actions on streamlining of salary sizes for the heads of all levels of state, public, co-operative and other establishments, organizations and the enterprises.
12. To accept emergency measures on the preparations, storages and agricultural products processing, considering the emergency with harvesting and hunger threat. To render the most possible help to the village workers by means of technics, spare parts, combustive-lubricating materials etc. To organize immediately the necessary quantities of workers, serving enterprises, organizations, students and military men for crop rescue in the village.
13. In week term the Cabinet of the USSR must develop the decision, providing all willing city dwellers with the land plots for garden works at the rate to 0,15 hectares during 1991-1992.
14. In a fortnight term the cabinet of the USSR must finish the planning of urgent actions for bailout of fuel and energy complex of the country and preparation for winter.
15. In a month to prepare and report on the people the real measures for 1992 on radical improvement of housing construction and providing the population with habitation. During half a year to develop the concrete program of the accelerated development of the state, co-operative and individual housing construction for five years' term.
16. To oblige governing bodies in the center and on the places to pay prime attention to population's social needs. To find possibilities of substantial improvement of free health services and national education.

 
The State committee
Of state of emergency of the USSR

 
In reply to such statement, despite interdictions of mass gatherings and meetings the mass meetings in support of the President of Russia Yeltsin and against GKChP decisions were held in Moscow and Leningrad.
Только в одной Москве более трехсот 
Only in Moscow more than three hundred thousand inhabitants and visitors of the capital surrounded the «White house» by the «live ring». As a result of failure of GKChP purposes the revolution attempt failed. Right after the unfortunate putsch there was a powerful process of the country decomposition as the reaction to it. The series of certificates and declarations on independence followed. It was, something like protection of republics in reply to revolution, and the pulse answer on the proclaimed, but yet not realized «right of the nations to self-determination».

прошли масштабные сборы людей.

прошли масштабные сборы людей.

In Moscow and Leningrad (which ten days later, on September, 1st 1991, became St-Petersburg again) the scale gathering of people were held.
What at that time occurred in Ukraine? In July of 1990 instead of Ivashko (who for the certain period replaced Shcherbitsky), passed to the work in the CPSU Central Committee (the secretary general deputy, i.e. the second secretary of Gorbachev), L.Kravchuk who had been the secretary of Central Committee KPU till that time was selected as the chairman of Supreme body of USSR.
Руководители движения против ГКЧП на Украине
The heads of movement against GKChP in Ukraine.
In the meantime the economic crisis in Ukraine went deep. The slump in production accrues. The inflation abruptly flied upwards. The wreck of economic relations between republics proceeded, and each one entered its price policy. For home market protection in November of 1990 Ukraine entered disposable coupons on the scarce goods. Nevertheless, the Kyiv view was chained to Moscow.
Expectation of signing of new allied contract in Ogarevo was one of the levers of «the bridge, i.e. the friendship ferry» being afloat, but there came August, nineteenth day. Today many inhabitants and visitors of Crimea connect this day with one very picturesque place of Crimea - Foros, where as «the prisoner of Château d'If», Mikhail Sergeevich stayed in custodial.
 
Знаменитая дача «Заря» и   последнее  посещение  Горбачевым   Севастополя 
Знаменитая дача «Заря» и   последнее  посещение  Горбачевым   Севастополя 
The well-known summer residence "Zarya" and the last Gorbachev's visit to Sevastopol.
In my opinion and some of my colleagues opinion, GKChP was something like beautifully produced performance with placing of "Mikhail Sergeevich" on the leaving about what GKChP members blabbed out .... After all they didn't reckon on Yeltsin's resoluteness and didn't expect to encounter persistent resistance of people, who were obedient some time ago. Varennikov and Chichevatov who «didn't mix well» neither with CPU management, nor with the management of VR of USSR arrived to Ukraine for coordination of activity. The result of activity of Ukrainian branch of GKChP was totally wasted, i.e. there had been neither support, nor resistance, already till August, 22nd when it became clear that it was no deal from the plot. In Ukraine the representatives of «group - 211» in the Supreme body suggested Presidium to accept the decision condemning putsch, but Presidium which majority were the representatives of «groups - 239» refused it. In the regions the new force was more safely and more actively. Lvov country council of deputies called the population for mass acts of civil disobedience and resistance. The session of Kharkov City Council, which structure was defined by «democratic platform of CPU», named the actions of GKChP as the «hardest crime». And after that the RUH management called for creation of organizational structures of active resistance. Further, all went on the accruing.
Вот теперь «проснулся» и Киев 
появился следующий Указ, который, запретил деятельность Компартии Украины
Six days later, under the influence of "big brother" and copying him always and in everything (but not always correctly) there was a following Decree which, forbade the activity of Communist Party of Ukraine, but didn't forbid its former heads to become "liberators".
С ликвидацией коммунистической партии началась борьба  С ликвидацией коммунистической партии началась борьба
With communist party liquidation the struggle against communistic idea and its heritage, including monuments began. If someone remembers, that complex stood on the present Independence square in Kyiv.
Вынужден привести еще один документ 
I'm compelled to result one more document. Without prejudicing the accepted acts, nevertheless, as the historian who is obliged to reach the truth, I would like to pay the reader's attention on the fact that on August, 30th there was a Decree of Presidium of Supreme Rada USSR, concerning prohibition of Communist Party activity, but four days earlier, there was accepted the Decision of the same Presidium of the Supreme Rada, but of Ukraine already. There is a question, as in one joke about Vovochka: «Where is logic, where is reason? ». And the answer is just that logically, the thought, advances actions, and on the contrary. And in six days, on September, 4th over the dome (not circus) but the buildings of Supreme body USSR the blue-yellow flag rose.
До декабря еще дышавший Советский Союз
Till December still breathing Soviet Union, and also its republics sooner as de facto, but not de jure had waited what will be further. Lo and behold, on December, 1st the referendum about Acknowledgement or the Act of declaration of independence of Ukraine took place with simultaneous presidential elections of Ukraine. (90 % of taken part answered "Yes").
Одновременно с этим опросом были проведены выборы
Simultaneously with that poll the presidential elections of Ukraine were held, which result of voting was more than 60 % and became the record for Ukraine. Leonid Makarovich Kravchuk became the first President. Also we shouldn't forget that the lion's share of voices was given to him by the Russian-speaking population to whom he had turned his look in difficult times as it was made by the "Great" Joseph Stalin: «Dear brothers and sisters ...».
считают, что «незалежность» свалилась в Украину нежданно-негаданно 
A number of Ukrainian historians consider that Independence fell down to Ukraine quite unexpectedly, i.e. by ricochet from Moscow fight for the power and was adopted by its "reinsured" management unwillingly. I'm not agree with it categorically, as the independence was literally given to Ukraine from Moscow, not union but Russian. It will be fairer. As already there were preparations for official disorder of Soviet Union both as the state so the system. Gorbachev as the President of the USSR, wasn't perceived any more neither by Moscow, nor by capitals of union republics, including Kyiv. On this basis on December, 7-8th 1991 in Bialowieza forest in Belarus the President of Russia B.Yeltsin, the President Ukraine L.Kravchuk, and also the chairman of the Supreme body of Byelorussia S.Shushkevich met in the atmosphere of secret. Tere they also signed the well-known agreement about the formation of Commonwealths of Independent States (CIS). Also that action was performed as by «guerrilla member», i.e. in the well-known guerrilla woods, on the well-arranged governmental hunting summer residence, far away from administrative centres, Moscow officials who could estimate that event as next plot. Well, in the period since December, 21st the heads of Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and in due course Georgia started to join the contract (as it is known from the recent events the last one left).
Отцы создатели СНГ – Кравчук, Шушкевич, Ельцин 
The fathers -founders of the CIS - Kravchuk, Shushkevich, Yeltsin.
On December, 26th, 1991, having existed for sixty nine years eleven months and twenty seven days, the Soviet Union broke up. There came an era of independent life of republics which received the «the right of nations to self-determination», and the right to economic and international independent swimming in the world politics storm.
Ukraine, one of the first, rushed in the thick of political events. Already on January, 16th 1992, the song written by composer Verbitsky "Ukraine has not died yet" on the words of Chubinsky became the National anthem of Ukraine, and on January, 28th 1992 the blue-yellow flag was confirmed as the National flag of Ukraine. The Constitution was changed, regarding the name of the country from the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic in Ukraine. Well and on February, 19th 1992 the Supreme body of Ukraine (liquidating) confirmed the new small arms of Ukraine, i.e. former princely Vladimir Svyatoslavovich's arms.
Сразу же отмечу, что на сегодня он
I will notice at once that it despite the fact that for today it is "small", i.e. everyday, it is still the basic State Emblem of Ukraine, which as the big arms, as well as many other things in my lovely Ukraine, is not accepted yet.
Together with the problems of acceptance of the State symbols and recognitions of Ukraine on the world scene, there were the problems both in the country, and within the CIS. There were contradictions between the states of CIS because of sharing of economic property of the USSR (as inside, so behind its limits), because of gold, currency and capital assets, military property (for example, the dispute between Russia, Ukraine and Georgia because of ship structure, and the main thing because of the Black Sea fleet infrastructure, between Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan concerning the Caspian military flotilla, strategic aircraft, and nuclear weapon). As to the internal life, it is necessary to notice that economic development was on the due level (though not such level, as before). As to the other questions it was necessary to do the huge work on acceptance of regulatory legal acts, especially the Laws of Ukraine which would define the level of its further development. And at the beginning the role and place of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine was the most fruitful then. But there began the revision of those positions which were on the agenda in the days of mass euphoria and elation. Each movement considered that it made Ukraine and its people free, forgetting that people are the higher carrier of the power.
The freedom from another's thoughts didn't become the freedom, as the realised necessity. You won't become free without bread and salary. The prime minister of Kravchuk presidency times, the former director of "Yuzhmash" Leonid Danilovich Kuchma who had offered the further development of economy in the commonwealth was the first in Ukraine who understood it. Alas, as it often happens, the principle of «own hut» turned to be stronger. As the result - there was the resignation of the last one.
Кравчук и Кучма. Президент и премьер Украины 
These are Kravchuk and Kuchma. The president and the prime minister of Ukraine are friends and allies as yet. It is so familiarly, so far, and at the same time absolutely nearby.
In the life of Ukraine there came not the best period. After "dizziness" the "nausea from problems" began. There was no currency, manufacture stopped, instead of the promised blessings and «life in paradise», something even began to remind the hell.
  купоны                   купоны 
As the substitute for coupon-karbovanets of USSR, the coupons on ... bread came to Ukraine, which always was the «breadbasket, recreation, and benefactress» of Russia. All period, from September of 1991 till December of 1993 passed in numerous disputes on the further device of the state, financial system, and necessity of the new Constitution acceptance, about ...
купон карбованца
купон карбованца 
Taken on the board the coupon of karbovanets of the National bank of Ukraine, it not only got upwards, but jumped «above its own growth» for some years, having turned to the banknote of face value in 1000000. At that time among commands of KVN the joke «Dear billionaires and billionaires! Help poor millionaires and millionaires» was very popular.
1994 became the year of mass discontent and opposition of all branches of the power, and extraordinary elections of the Parliament, and President became its result. On July, 10th Leonid Kuchma was selected as the President, and Alexander Moroz became the Chairman of the Supreme body of Ukraine.

Кравчук передает бразды правления Кучме.
The same place, the same hall and the same eyes, but... Kravchuk transfers the reins of government to Kuchma.
With duet Kuchma - Moroz coming to the power, the position in the country began to be stabilised. Relations with near, and far abroad neighbour, were adjusted, the fallen economy revived, there was the gleam in the question of the Black Sea fleet, debate on the nuclear weapon stopped, Kuchma's multivector policy concerning the program «East - West» had its development. To tell that everything was good, means to invent, but there were shifts were, and there were at last are noticed by the Ukrainian society. The next wave of Ruins passed Ukraine, without having caused an essential harm.
Also, at this particular time the Constitution of Ukraine was accepted (in this case duet Kuchma - Moroz worked), the present currency - hrivna was entered into the reference, Ukraine gets weight on European theatre of mutual actions.
                    1996-й стал «золотым годом» для Украины                             1996-й стал «золотым годом» для Украины
1996 became the «golden year» for Ukraine. The constitution was (I will remind that it was accepted on June, 28th), the hrivna was in use (it was entered into the reference on September, 2nd), the parliament of Ukraine by that time "had already worked well together" with Kuchma's president's team who, basically, fairly and frankly declared his intentions to stand for the second term ...
It would seem that stability was already appeared, also someone had the prosperity (who doesn't trust, please, apply to Pavlo Ivanovichu Lazarenko), it would seem that people began the usual household reasoning, like what they would buy the next year and where they would plan the next year trip etc. It was still far till the stable times of the USSR (in the questions of life stability, instead of Parliament structure), but there appeared the light in the end of the tunnel. There were also successes and problems, after all almost eight years from the moment of creation of the new socioeconomic structure passed and in November of 1999, the new-old President of Ukraine came (the people spoke for fun «Leonid the Second went to the second term»).
Within the limits of the given work I don't give estimation to any activity of Presidents of Ukraine as the people does it and will do it. I will notice only that, as well as any public figure both had successes and errors.

2001-й. Председатель Верховной Рады Иван Плющ 
2001 year. There are the chairman of the Supreme Rada Ivan Plyushch («on the second calling»), the President Leonid Kuchma (also, on «the second time») and the Prime Minister Victor Yushchenko. The time of spring and trees planting.
There came the new millennium, the period when every possible scandals - from sale of the weapon and "Chain armours" to the beatings, political murders and «cassette scandal» started to shake Ukraine. In autumn of 2000 (on November, 28th) Kuchma was accused of elimination of journalist Georgy Gongadze who was unwanted for the authority, and the leader of Socialist party of Ukraine Alexander Moroz published an audio record on which the conversations between the President, the head of the Office of the President Vladimir Litvin and the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine Yury Kravchenko, concerning disappearances of Gongadze was ostensibly written to. It caused the action beginning «Ukraine without Kuchma», which was organized by the opposition. The action was populous street demonstrations and tent small towns in the center of Kyiv.
Олександр Мороз делает заявление.
           Alexander Moroz makes the statement.
Олександр Мороз делает заявление.
In 2001 the Supreme Rada tried to begin an impeachment procedure concerning Leonid Kuchma for several times. Leonid Kuchma lost his popularity in Ukraine. His rating of trust fell to twenty percent. Two following years passed under the badge of «situation levelling» and the strengthening of multiple-vector phenomenon in politics, on the West and on the East. The instability epoch came back.
2004 year became a new coil in the opposition of two basic players in the field, under the name of Ukraine - Victor Yushchenko and Victor Yanukovych - two wishing to win.
After the first round of elections when from all applicants all of them remained, opposition amplified to the limit and on November, 21st of the same 2004, after results announcement of the second round of elections when Victor Yanukovych was declared as the winner, Ukraine was amazed with the new "orange" revolution. The information on Yushchenko's poisoning that had excited a considerable part of the Ukrainian society added the oil to the fire of opposition.

Виктор Янукович

                          Victor Yanukovych

Виктор Ющенко вместе с Сацюком еще до отравления

                                          Victor Yushchenko together with Satsyuk before the poisoning.
Эти фотографии «до и после» стали страшным аргументом

These photos "before and after" became the terrible argument, especially against Kuchma, as against the still working President. Orange revolution (Pomarancheva revolution) became the series of protests, meetings, pickets, strikes and actions, including the actions of civil disobedience in Ukraine (especially on the western part) which was organized and held by Victor Yushchenko's supporters (under the support of some non-governmental organizations of the far abroad countries) and opponents of his basic competitor Victor Yanukovych.

Страна оказалась расколотой

Страна оказалась расколотой

Страна оказалась расколотой
The country was split in direct and figurative sense. The power and opposition were at the deadlock. So, for example, the city councils of Kyiv, Lvov and several other cities refused to pronounce the legality of official results while Donetsk, Kharkov, Crimea and other cities of the east, southeast and southern parts of Ukraine recognized only Yanukovych.
Speaking about the «leadership of laws» in Ukraine, it is necessary to remember the fact that on November, 24th at the session of the Supreme Rada, Yushchenko in the pointed manner said the text of the president of Ukraine oath from the tribune in spite of the fact that he hadn't been officially selected. After the announcement of definitive results, according to which Yanukovych had been pronounced as the winner (as we know, Russia also recognized him), Yushchenko appealed to his supporters in Kyiv, having urged them to begin the «Orange revolution» and to compel the power not to recognize the forged results of elections and said his well-known phrase: «The way to the compromise through the demonstration of national will is the one way which will help us to find the way out of this conflict. Thus, the committee of national rescue declares the national political strike». After such statement, the USA supported the opposition. For completeness I will result only the smallest part of the statements about it, made by the second person in the USA state secretary Kolin Powell: «USA doesn't recognize the results of inconsistent elections in Ukraine as legitimate"; "It is the critical moment for the Ukrainian power. It should solve - whether to be on the party of the democracy or not, whether to be on the side of Ukrainian people or not"; "If the Ukrainian power doesn't immediately react to the situation, we should overview our relations with Ukraine. It is a question of the Atlantic integration, and also about the individual responsibility of those who concerns infringements during elections";" The central election committee has just published the results of elections and pronounced the operating Prime Minister as the winner. We cannot accept these results. The world community also doesn't recognize them- as there was no investigation of the numerous fixed infringements and falsifications"; "We call for the full viewing of elections results. We think that it is not late for the Ukrainian power to consider the will of Ukrainian people. The countries all over the world nowadays observe of situation in Ukraine"; "In the Morning I talked to the president of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma. I've urged him to use all accessible legitimate means for viewing of elections results. I have also spoken about impossibility of force application against demonstrators"; "We've discussed this situation with the head of the European commission Barroso and Javier Solana. I assure that they share our opinion. We've also spoken with the Polish power and supported the statement of the president Kvasnevsky";"We have contacted the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Russia Lavrov and discussed inadmissibility of application of violence and pressure upon the Ukrainian people"; "Meanwhile we haven't made the decision on any sanctions. We would like to wait, when it will come to the end »...
вмешался суд «самый гуманный, самый справедливый суд в мире» 
вмешался суд «самый гуманный, самый справедливый суд в мире» 
Further, as the reader remembers, «the most humane, most fair court in the world» interfered in that affair, by the way, almost on the Christmas Eve when, according to one former judge, the "sowing" of courts by pounds, dollars, EURO happens ...
The Supreme court of Ukraine decided that it was impossible to establish the results of elections and on December, 3rd it decided to spend the repeated round of voting in terms, established by the Law «About presidential elections in Ukraine», estimating it since December, 5th, 2004. After that decision the Supreme Rada replaced the structure of the Central election committee (and the main thing, removed S.V Kivalov unwanted for "orange" members) and approved of the amendments to the disposable law on presidential elections with the aim to block the basic channels of election falsification. The acceptance of those amendments was the result of the compromise between the power and opposition. The constitutional reform limiting the power of the president of Ukraine and transferring the part of its full powers to the Cabinet and Parliament was confirmed in the package with it.
Elections, instead of the third round which had taken place on December, 26th provided the victory of the current President Victor Yushchenko. On January, 23rd, 2005 Victor Yushchenko took the oath officially and started to take office of the President of Ukraine. The same time there ascended the star of one of Victor Yushchenko's most active colleagues - Yulia Timoshenko, who became the prime-minister.
Выборы народных депутатов Украины 26 марта 2006 года 
But, as it constantly occurs to Ukraine, the quantity of "hetmen" surpasses the quantity of places in the presidential armchair. Besides, there came the usual working everyday life when meetings and processions, which hadn't benefit the social and economic development of Ukraine any more, and propagation and propaganda couldn't substitute the bread and oil. Among the yesterday's colleagues there were disagreements, both on the personnel questions, and concerning the government, especially, taking into account the introduction of the new parliament-presidential form of government.
Elections of People's Deputies of Ukraine took place on March, 26th, 2006 and became the serious examination for the new power. Alexander Moroz selected as chairman from yesterday's ally of Yushchenko turned to his opponent, to put it midly. As it is known from the contemporary history of Ukraine, the given parliament hadn't existed for long time and on September, 30th 2007 the extraordinary elections of People's Deputies of Ukraine took place. On December, 4th Arseny Petrovich Yatsenyuk as the protégé of the working President became (for the reason of "peculiarities of his election") the new chairman of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine.
Не меньшим было противостояние 
The opposition in the higher performing power when the post of the Prime minister, serially passed from Yanukovych to Timoshenko, then in the opposite direction and again to Timoshenko was not less.
    Да и в Верховной Раде также не было порядка   Впереди у Украины новые выборы 
Да и в Верховной Раде также не было порядка. 14 декабря 2008-го Арсений Яценюк подал в отставку, а 17 ноября новым-старым председателем стал Владимир Михайлович Литвин.
Ну а сегодня мы имеем такую историю 
There was no order in the Supreme Rada. On December, 14th 2008 Arseny Yatsenyuk resigned, and on November, 17th Vladimir Mikhailovich Litvin became the new-old chairman. Ukraine is waiting for the new elections, trials, and new history. Thus, if one considers that the history is written by the people we should specify that it is rewritten by politicians and how - it is simple to foresee. The same persons, as in the first, second, and third rounds...
Well, and today we have such history:
Ну а сегодня мы имеем такую историю 
Обращаем Ваше внимание, что мнение редакции портала UKRAINE-IN может не совпадать с мнением авторов. На портале размещены статьи историков из разных стран, которые могут по-разному интерпретировать события. Также просим Вас воздержаться от агрессивных и нецензурных комментариев.
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