Ukraine at the critical stage of social development during the post-war period

In the World War II (1939 - 1945) especially, during the Great Patriotic War, Ukraine suffered the greatest losses: more than four millions victims and missing, and also two millions people, who were taken out to Germany for forced hard labour. And if today the date of October, 28th as 1944 is considered as the official date of the Soviet Ukraine liberation it was still too far to the date of outright liberation of Ukraine and Ukrainian people. Judge by yourself - the world war "left" the fields of Ukraine, which was at once «replaced» by the war with ruin, destructions of all national economy, mine war and the war with the gangsterism (i.e. that gangsterism which is today known by the films of «Meeting place is impossible to change» and «Liquidation»). The incalculable disasters were brought to all country by the war, and especially - to Ukraine and its people. The enormous damage was caused to the republic national economy. Industrial enterprises, power stations, mines, and railways were almost completely made inoperative, many cities (especially industrial centers) settlements (mine and factory) and villages were destroyed and burnt out, financially - technical base of agriculture was also ruined, and the cattle was stolen.
Process of Ukraine returning to the peace life, begun at once on the released east areas and proceeded in extreme severe conditions. The war with its «accompanying elements», walked twice along its territory as the destruction wave. As a terrible wave of a tsunami, at first it came on the east, then, in the opposite direction. Every sixth inhabitant of republic was lost, and the most efficient population, men, were on fronts. According to the statistical researches which still were under the signature stamp "confidentially", more than ten millions of people, occupying Ukraine, were dishomed, because invaders destroyed and burnt 714 cities and settlements, more than 28 thousand villages, more than 16 thousand industrial enterprises, almost 33 thousand schools, technical schools and high schools. After liberation there was only the fifth part of pre-war number of the industrial enterprises, that urgently needed repairing in the republic . About 30 thousand collective farms, state farms, MTS stopped their existence. The total sum of the damage put to the population and national economy of Ukraine, made almost 1,2 trillion roubles at the rate of 1941. But there was one more question - of the definitive association of all Ukrainian lands that was fixed in the decisions of the Crimean (Yalta) conference.

Это не могилы жертв Голодомора, а погибших в годы оккупации
These are not the tombs of Holodomor victims, but victims, who were lost in the days of occupation
If all territorial disputes concerning the former east Polish lands, and actually - Ukrainian and Belarus lands, were solved unequivocally, considering the transfer of the former Prussian territories and Pomerania to Poland, Zakarpatye lands should have been dealed with as with the lands, occupied by Hungarians. It is necessary to address to the question of full all Ukrainian lands union for the reason that on June, 29th 1945 USSR and Czechoslovakia signed the contract on joining of Zakarpatye Ukraine to USSR. In spite of the fact that by the autumn 1944 the territory of Podkarpatsky Russia had been liberated from the Hungarian armies, the problem who would have possessed Ruthenian land was especially acute for the again created Czechoslovakia and Ukraine till the next year summer. Considering «the right of the winner», i.e. the fact of Zakarpatye liberation by the Soviet armies and aggressive essence of Hungary, and also the wish of the part of Russins, living in Zakarpatye, Stalin, to put it mildly, advised Czechoslovakia (especially Slovakia as the ally of Germany) to give that territory to the Soviet Ukraine, as it was made.
Русины радуются воссоединению. 
Russins rejoice to reunion.
It is necessary to tell some words about fatal Crimean conference which took place in Yalta (actually in Livadia) during the period from February, 4 till February, 11th 1945. Its value is huge, both for Europe, and for Ukraine. The new western borders of the USSR, Ukraine and Belarus were designated, and the main thing that, Ukraine and Belarus became the full members of the United Nations, as the republic, which mostly suffered from fascism.
Лидеры «Большой тройки» в Ялте. 
The leaders of the «Big three» in Yalta
As the topic of Crimea was touched in spite of the fact that in those days, it was a part of RSFSR, there is a necessity to consider one more question - deportation of the Crimean-Tatar people. In spite of the fact that the considerable part of historians in this question refer to the «general behaviour» of Crimean Tatars in the days of occupation, i.e. on elements dancing attendance on the Hitlerism, all the same, in my opinion, it is necessary to search for deportation roots in Yalta conference. As it is known, after the Teheran conference of 1943 (today famous by the fine film «Teheran - 43») the leaders of «Big three» decided to conduct the conference on the threshold of definitive defeat of Germany in Soviet Union. Such conference was planned in the beginning of 1945. However the place of its carrying out wasn't designated, but taking into account the wish of all leaders and peculiarity of the district, remote from the battlefield, the decision of its holding in Crimea was accepted, as everyone liked that area. So, the dear reader, taking into account the organization of fatal conference safety, the department of Beria concluded to spend «elimination» of Crimea territory from socially-dangerous elements, to which the Crimean Tatars, Bulgarians, Greeks and Germans were ranked. Stalin, on the basis of the people's commissar report, wasn't against such «elimination». There was no analysis who served Germans and who remained true to the Soviet power (though in the groups of Crimean guerrilla there were Bulgarians, Greeks and Tatars, although not from the first days, but closer to 1944).
А сегодня с этим вопросом, приходится разбираться Украине… 
And today Ukraine should sort this problem...
There is one more problem which rose before Ukraine - returning of its citizens from Germany, that were taken out violently. Well, there is nothing to tell, really not everyone went to Germany under the escort and threats to the native as if the candidate for works (son or daughter) didn't came on the labour exchange, everybody would suffer. The history truth says and that there were even numerous queues of volunteers willing to work in Germany by the matter of fact and by spirit. In the percentage parity, those volunteers weren't too much, about 25 %. And when there came the question: why not all driven to Germany had returned to the native earth, the answer was obvious. In addition, it's necessary not to forget that a part of the young men and girls (both stolen violently, and arrived «on the heart call») found their significant other in Europe. Certainly, it is impossible to reproach them today, taking into account the all-European values. And 65 years ago ...
Эти украинские юноши нашли себя в фашистской Германии. 
Those Ukrainian young men found themselves in fascist Germany
But there were also those who came back home from bondage sincerely and in dismay. And everyone was interested in the question who would meet them at home, and the main thing how.
Этот плакат из коллекции Национального музея 
This poster from the collection of the National museum of history of the Great Patriotic War, testifies that there were problems...
Well, let's return to the new heartrending trials which dropped out already to the post-war Ukraine. First of all during the post-war period the heavy and military industry, including providing requirements of the front, power stations; metallurgical industrial complexes flooded with fascists of mine and railways had been restoring. The majority of the enterprises of light and food-processing industry, collective farms and state farms remained dilapidated because of forces and means shortage. Despite endured difficulties, working class and peasantry of Ukraine restored the economy of Ukraine-Russia, destroyed by war by their sweat and blood.

Таким был Киев после освобождения

Таким был Киев после освобождения

That was Kyiv after its liberation and it was restored in such a way

А так Днепрогэс.

А так Днепрогэс.

And that was Dneproges
The results of people's intense work on restoration of the destroyed economy were impressing. In 1950, in five years after the war industrial production in Ukraine exceeded the level of 1940 on 15 %. In 1947, despite the next wave of hunger, the rationing system was cancelled. However, the industrial growth didn't cause the essential increase of social standard of living (ask grandfathers and grandmothers and they will tell you something about it...). By 1950 the light industry had hardly reached 80 % of the pre-war level, the acute shortage of consumer goods was felt (photos of that time embodied men in soldier's blouses without an epaulet, and women in those old clothes that had remained since the pre-war period). In addition, the currency reform of 1947 (nobody cancel money in the days of war) devaluated the rouble, "ate" personal savings and provoked rise of prices. There were peasants, who experienced the most difficult times for whom the sharpest contradictions of economy restoration were in agriculture (by 1950 it had reached only 60 % from the review data level of 1940, unlike the industry) which took the minor place and was subjected to the consequences of the catastrophic drought of 1946, after what the state structures (the party and the government) under the N.S.Khruschev's evidence were engaged in taking grain stocks away among the population. Besides, the «leader of all times and the people» Stalin ordered to take out the significant amount of bread to the east Europe, in order not to admit the national democracy acceptance of the American Marshall's plan of Europe economy restoration by the number of the countries. As a result of that «arbitrariness» the hunger which according to some information on the Left bank took away the lives of 800 thousand of people, bursted out in Ukraine?
Nevertheless, by 1950 the first military parade took place on a Kreschatik in the restored Kyiv. That event became the beginning of the new epoch in Ukraine - from ruin to fulfillments.
А ведь еще совсем недавно 
А ведь еще совсем недавно 
It's not so long ago that Kyiv, Kharkov, Dnepropetrovsk, Zaporizhzhia, and Stalino (today Donetsk) looked equally terribly, as the center of Kyiv.
The monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky in Kyiv - January, 1944
Памятник Богдану Хмельницкому в Киеве – январь 1944-го 
The monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky in Kyiv - January 1944
Although the hardworking Ukrainian people again accomplished the labour feat. The metal works started working, mines gave the coal, the electric power was produced by the restored hydroelectric power stations.
The same time the process of the West Ukrainian lands industrialisation which industry wasn't developed in the east, and didn't receive such catastrophic destructions. The development of the western areas of Ukraine in the post-war years differed by the number of features. The Soviet system that was actually the new system, because the population hadn't had time to "be reconstructed" for one and a half year (from November of 1939 to June, 22nd of 1941), faced the hostile relation of Greek-Catholic church, strong influence of the nationalism ideas among the population, strongly negative attitude to collectivisation by the majority of peasantry, and as the result the armed actions from underground OUN- UPA. Nevertheless, in the new areas of the Western Ukraine industrialisation took place all the same. By 1951 the industrial production had grown to 230 % in comparison with 1945 (Poland hadn't manufactures in its interests) and made 10 % of the industrial production of the whole Ukraine. The collective-farm peasantry, working class, and the new concept for the population of the western areas was generated. There appeared an intelligency, not creative which always was in Galichina, by technical that also became the opening for the Western Ukraine. Some of my colleagues reproach the Soviet power that it violently sent the West Ukrainian young men and girls to study in Kyiv, Kharkov, Stalino, Zaporizhzhia, Dnepropetrovsk. But, pardon me, whence the West Ukrainian power, mountain engineers, metallurgists, manufacture technologists, experts of the average industry could come from. Already in due course, i.e. in 1951, the high schools in Lvov, Stanislav, Drogobych, Chernovtsy, Tarnopol were opened. But, it is necessary not to forget that all those transformations and improvement of simple people's life on the West Ukrainian lands occured in terms of fierce collisions. On the one hand the bodies of People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs during the struggle against gangsterism (so the struggle with OUN-UPA was estimated) really applied reprisals and unreasonable charges of fair workers in nationalism, deportation of more than 200 thousand people to eastern areas of the country. On the other hand, OUN-UPA destroyed all who came to help people: doctors, teachers, average heads, Soviet and party workers, frontier guards protecting the border, admitted by the whole world .
Nevertheless, despite the difficult post-war years, noted by wearisome work and material difficulties, to the beginning of 50th Ukraine had reached the pre-war level of economic development.
March 5th, 1953 became the events of the end of Stalinism epoch. Namely Stalinism, instead of Stalin epoch, because the victory has a lot of relatives and the troubles - are orphan. Not only the «leader of all times and people» is guilty in the troubles of all Soviet people, and Ukrainian people, in particular. The events of today's history are the evidence of that, when all together go on the Maidan , and go alone on the history court. There's no such thing as: to know everyone by name or not to speak about the cult of personality, forgetting about other, not less significant persons, who if the victory happens say "hurrah" if the loss - «I was against», but only «silently and inwardly» ...
После сталинская эпоха 

Later Stalin epoch was connected with the name of Russia and Ukraine native Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev (as he called himself). Well, as to the persons carrying patronymic Sergeevich, we are short of luck, because there were either corn experiments, or "reorganizations". Another matter Leonidovichs - quiet, with the feeling, arrangement, certain stability, though with the elements of «Pripyat bogs». Well, that is the lyrical-historical deviation.
The things that were made during that period:
- «Khrushchev's thaw», including Ukrainian intelligency;
- Experiments in agriculture on all open spaces of USSR, including Ukraine;
- Participation of Ukraine in virgin lands lifting though the own lands weren't mastered properly (by the way, why abusing Khrushchev, we should better walk along the fields of modern Ukraine);
- Introduction of new system of crop rotations, i.e. by the command and under the schedule;
- Firstly creation, and then MTS liquidation, at the initiative of Ukraine;
- Decision of village personnel problems by Khrushchev's type as if «I've said so»;
- The decision of liquidation of the branch ministries and introduction of national economy councils;
- Increase in release of consumer goods (the first refrigerators, washing machines, automobiles "Moscvich" and "Gorbatiy", baby carriages, modern and accessible furniture);
- The decision of housing problem as a whole, who doesn't trust, means that he didn't live in "Khrushevka" (five-storied apartment block);
- Serious development of science, but not culture, in the sense of its "pluralism" (if the woman should have a plait and should be dressed in the skirt, so and in no other way);
- Carrying out of currency reform by 1961;
- The further expansion of communications with the foreign countries, both «national democracy», and «sharks of capitalism»;
- Opening of borders for an «exchange of experience», but only not air (as the well-known air scout Powers);
- Administrative-political reform according to which Crimea was a part of Ukraine (I'm not the supporter of of this theme consideration as, according to one modern ex-politician words «we have, what we have», and if it have fallen to you, take it, otherwise, you will lose);
- Development of social sphere and increase of the standard of life, growth of workers' incomes, including Ukraine, etc.
Though Khruschev's reforms also contained the positive moments, but owing to their incompleteness and inconsistency (they did not touch the bases of command-management system, the economic transformations were not supplemented with the deep democratisation of a society and etc.) there were no cardinal changes in the economy and other spheres of public life. It is possible to argue with this postulate from encyclopaedia. The national economy continued to develop in extensive way, but it DID DEVELOPED.

        Кто не был в «хрущевке», тот жизни не знает.  Кто не был в «хрущевке», тот жизни не знает. 
Those, who wasn't in "Khrushevka-apartment", doesn't know the life.
Можно сегодня смеяться над словами Никиты Сергеевича            Можно сегодня смеяться над словами Никиты Сергеевича 
We can laugh today at Nikita Sergeevich's words that the rocket which started the first person on the earth to space, who was the Soviet person, had the form of... corn, but the great state of 50th which was the USSR, and Ukraine together with it came around during his lifetime.
Nevertheless, to the beginning of 60th style and management methods, not only Khrushchev's, but all his device of those times, i.e. «the leader of all times and people» had really become outdated. Even the movement of men of sixties, in good understanding, couldn't stop the novelty and desire to live not only under communist way of life, but also under the European style. The Soviet people saw, how the won people lived and could compare it to the life of winners ...
ри Хрущеве во всех союзных республиках строились детские садики 
At Khrushchev's in all union republics kindergartens and schools academic and medical small towns were under construction, the new areas under construction were accustomed, new cities were erected, but the people wanted to go for a drive not only by the public transport, but by their own transport mean. The reader, especially, who, is elder, please remind of the fine Eldar Ryazanov's film «Be cautious from the car».
«Берегись автомобиля». 
As one knows, it was released only in 1965, after Khrushchev's resignation, because Nikita Sergeevich suggested, that «money and the blessing» are the enemies of the Soviet society. It is difficult to give estimation to such uncommon person as he left his trace in Ukraine. But me my colleagues on feather and historical researches have a version concerning characteristic, and, in particular, family-related traits of Khruschev's management ...

общественно-политический еженедельник

 

Newsweekly
March 6 - 12 , 2009 #9 (459)
Sergey SMOLIANNIKOV, Victor MIKHAILOV

 

MOTHER'S TRACE 
By 115th anniversary from the date of Nikita Khruschev's birth, we should remember his mother
Five years ago, by 110th anniversary from the date of birth of the picturesque Soviet leader Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, the book about his life had been released in the USA. Still when William Taubman worked over it, the head of publishing house with skill tried to damp a research ardour of the political scientist: the reader "will swallow" maximum five thousand copies, as the interest to Russia went on recession long time ago. However when the book "Khrushchev: personality and his era" was published, not only 25 thousand copies in firm cover were bought up, but also the same quantity in the soft cover. In parallel the book was translated and published on Czech, Spanish, Japanese, Estonian and Latvian language... And whether we know Khrushchev well, the person, whose name is strongly associated with Ukraine and Kyiv? One remembers his ignorance multiplied by roughness and authoritativeness. Others, on the contrary, say that only at Khrushchev's times they really felt themselves the Soviet people. The third attribute to him the defeat of creative searches of literary and art intelligency. Still someone, on the contrary, speaks about essential development of science during his board in all spheres - from space to agricultural industry. It is impossible to give estimation of his activity within the limits of one, two, even ten pages. The history scales will probably remain in neutral position, even if we put his "nice and forcible affairs" on the bowls. But, nevertheless, the period of "Nikita's board" was very rough, and noone knows in what way our recent socialist society would develop, if any other head were on his place ... If to take, for example, his foreign policy activity: Berlin and Caribbean crises - obviously minus, Egypt and Korea - plus, accordingly. The first outer space exploration - is also Nikita Sergeevich's merit, army dispersal and fleet destruction - you wouldn't rank it to the merits in any way, though there were objective reasons for the defined, but not extreme reduction. The attempt "to corn" the country from Kushk to Kola is the element of misconception of country agricultural specificity. As well as persecutions on writers, artists, poets, composers, whose creativity didn't fit in his outlook - is also the element of leader's creative misconception. But there was ХХ CPSU congress. It destroyed the "nation-wide camp system", got from the "favourite teacher". Thousands of people, who survived, left the country of "GULAG"-type and returned to that society which they were building in 30th years. Also it's impossible to forget and that ten thousands of "Khrushchev-era" apartments appeared, today they are not only the embodiment of his epoch, but also the real available housing of the present Ukraine, including Kyiv. Why such heteropolar ideas, sights and acts incorporated in the person who managed the great state, not having obtained the higher education? Why did he make a set of inadequate acts? In our opinion, the woman, as always, has a hand in the dish. And not a simple woman, but the mother indeed. "The one who was in favourites at mother, enters life as the conqueror, with the confidence in the victory, that frequently provides the real success " - Sigmund Freud said... ... The history testifies that on April, 17th, 1894 in the family of Sergey Nikanorovich and Ksenia Ivanovna Khruscheva, who were living in the village Kalinovka of Kursk province, the son Nikita was born. Poor landless young parents searching for more tolerable life moved to Yuzovka (nowadays, Donetsk city) to live in industrial Donbass. Poverty in the family was so strong, that parents didn't even think of brother or sister for Nikitushka. But two years later there was born his small sister Ira, after then Ksenia Ivanovna "put an end" in this question. Under the memoirs of last daughter-in-law - Nina Kuharchuk, Nikita Sergeevich's mother considered her husband as the loser and third-rater." His mother was the woman with strong will, the woman-fighter - Nina Petrovna remembered. - She was brave, and wasn't afraid of anybody. The father - was softer, kinder, but she was controlling everyone. He was soft and weak, and she kept him under the thumb". Mother insisted that the son went to work in the mine. Not only for the purpose to earn money but to became the proletarian and to find himself in the new society. She sent her son in the mine for dangerous work so that he could become the "big person ", instead of inutile, as his father was. The parent's education gave the aggravated sense of justice and responsibility to Khrushchev. As Nikita Sergeevich remembered, mother made everything for him in order being conceived neither for tobacco, nor to vodka. Only while working in Moscow, on "Stalin's round-gatherings he "was compelled" to drink together with all: refusal was fraught ... it is necessary to result one more interesting - "female" fact from Nikita Sergeevich's biography. Khrushchev's s son-in-law Alexey Adzhubey in his memoirs resulted such story of the father-in-law: "When I was small, - in the thoughtful manner unusual for Khrushchev Nikita Sergeevich - and pastured cows in the wood the old woman approached to me. She was looking in my eyes for a long time, I even was struck dumb. And I've heard the strange words from her: "Dear boy, the big future is waiting for you". Nikitushka told that history to the mother. Subsequently that fact proved to be true, when Nina Petrovna's daughter-in-law Lyubov Sizyh told about conversation with the mum-grandmother Ksenia Ivanovna as she was named in the family: "Ksenia idolized her son, named him tsar and praised that she always knew: Nikita will become the great person".
The son also responded his mother with fidelity and love similar to deification. In 1932 he took away the parents to Moscow. If Sergey Nikanorovich after miner's life couldn't find himself in the capital, in the "House on the quay" the mother, as they say, got in sphere. Practically all the days she together with her neighbour and mothers of the same party functionaries, stayed on the small bench near the entrance and talked about her son and his first children. The mother loved her son not only as the native child, but also as the "great person". Thus, as all other members of the household remembered, the mother at once had taken a dislike to Nina Petrovna Kukharchuk as she considered that Efrosinya Ivanovna - Frosya, the mother of Lena and Yulya was the best Nikita's wife (the first wife died of typhus in 1919). The second wife, Marusya, under the memoirs, was simply made things warm from the house. Both the last daughter-in-law and grandsons gave such characteristic to Ksenia Ivanovna: "Khrushchev's mother - broad-faced, severe, with hair smoothly combed back, was the strong woman. Ksenia was not simply smart, but rather wise woman. If she had obtained the higher education- she would have been something ". In 1938 Sergey Nikanorovich who was buried not on prestigious, but on Moscow cemetery nearest to the house (most likely, on Vagankovsky) died of tuberculosis. After father's funeral neither Nikita Sergeevich, nor Ksenia Ivanovna had ever been on his tomb which for today is not found ... Then 1938 came, the year of the beginning of the Ukrainian stage in Nikita Sergeevich's life and his big family. He couldn't live in loneliness, without his wife, children and, certainly, mother. In the square on the Herzen Street Khrushchev's private residence, as well as his guest small house in Mezhigorye remained till now. With the Great Patriotic War beginning all Khrushchev's family, except the young pilot Leonid Khrushchev and Nikita Sergeevich went on evacuation to Kuibyshev. After the war Khrushchev came back to Kyiv on the post of the first secretary of Central Committee of Communist Party of Ukraine. But in September 1944, he returned his family to native Kyiv, and then lodged in Mezhigorye. He was again in the high orbit of the power, the country and the republic which up to the end hadn't been liberated from German-Romanian invaders was proud of it. The same time the nice date came to the life of any politician - 50th anniversary. As usual, they waited for any special "goodwill" of the leader Stalin. But the life, alas, introduced the corrective amendments: on February, 29th, 1944 Nikolay Vatutin got heavy, but yet nonfatal wound from the bullets of Bandera's following. The self-confident Nikita Sergeevich convinced Moscow that Kyiv doctors would not only rescue the legendary commander, but also put him on feet. However in such cases the delay is the death similarity: Gangrene, and on April, 15th the heart of the talented commander and the favourite of armies and people stopped. On April, 17th, in the day of his semicentenial anniversary, instead of the holiday in his honour Khruschev waited a funeral of general Vatutin ... Ksenia Ivanovna, with her parent scent, worried concerning the fact, the death of one of Stalin's favourite generals could shoot down on the son's further career. If Georgy Zhukov played along with Nikita Sergeevich, that after Vatutin's death he became the 1st Ukrainian ordering under whose guidance he had taken Berlin and supported Khruschev's version that Vatutin's wound was deadly, the mother couldn't stand that stress. The anxiety at such age (after all she was 73 year old woman) affected her health, and literally in half a year after her moving to Kyiv, she died. She was buried on Lukyanovsky cemetery, on the central avenue. Being already the head of the state, Nikita Sergeevich visited the native tomb very often. Remembering his proletarian origin, he forbade to put the monument on her tomb. Today the tomb of Khruschev's mother was brought in the register of Kyiv history monuments. It is also necessary to notice that two persons are buried in one tomb: Khruschev's mother and his son-in-law - Victor Gontar, the husband of oldest daughter Yulia, the former director of Kyiv opera. ... we do not know, how "Khruschev's followings" of Ukraine will remember Nikita Sergeevich's name but if to speak about him and his affairs it is necessary to tell some words about his mother ...
На старинном киевском Лукьяновском кладбище 
On the ancient Kyiv Lukyanovsky cemetery there is a tomb of the woman who supervised her son all his life, who after Stalin became the "father of the nation" ...
But on October, 14th 1964 the session of the well-known Plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU took place, after which Nikita Sergeevich "resigned". If there are persons, interested to learn about that period in more details, I send the attentive reader to the most accessible kind of arts - to the cinema. It is enough, in my opinion, to watch the film of the director Igor Gostev «Grey wolves» in order to understand an essence of that epoch, of course, from the point of view of the inhabitant.
Так закончилась эпоха человека 
So the epoch of the person, whose name is closely connected with Ukraine, ended. His name is Nikita Sergeevich Khrushchev, the First secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU, the chairman of USSR Council of Ministers, the Hero of the Soviet Union, three times Hero of Socialist Work, the First winner of Shevchenko's award. But the memory of him lives not only in the minds of politicians and historians, but also in the national memory. It is enough to remember his "pearls":
- «Politicians are identical everywhere: they promise to construct the bridge, where there is also no the river»;
- «We shall never accept Adenauera as the representative of Germany. If to take off his trousers and to look at his bum you can convince that Germany is divided. And if to look in front of him you can convince that Germany will never rise»;
«Are you men or damned faggots, how can you write such things?».
Памятник на могиле Хрущева Н.С 
The monument on the tomb of N.S Khrushchev - established on the Novodevichye cemetery of Moscow, in my opinion, it is the true display of life and acts of any politician: both white and black.
Although he lived and worked not for the sake of himself, or for the sake of revenge to Stalin for his son, or fear of responsibility for signatures, punishable by death, but all the same for the sake of this:
Но жил и трудился он не ради себя 
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