The further advancement of the Swedish army slowed down. By means of Peter's efforts Swedes had to move on the devastated district, suffering the sharp deficiency of provisions. By the autumn of 1708 Charles XII had compelled to turn to the south, towards Ukraine. In October, 1708 Peter knew about Mazepa's treason who was in correspondence with Charles XII and promised him reinforcement and the foodstuffs, in case of arrival to Ukraine. On October, 28th, 1708 Mazepa at the head of the Cossacks group arrived to Charles's rate. However the traitor didn't manage to bring the promised Cossack army in 50 thousand persons to the Swedish king. Only about 2 thousand Zaporozhean Cossacks and three thousand armies true to Mazepa came to the camp of the enemy with the hetman. In winter 1708-1709 Charles's XI army slowly moved ahead on the snow-covered Ukrainian steppes. Having stepped on Ukrainian land, Swedish aggressors found neither dwellings, nor bread and fodder. Inhabitants met invaders with the weapon in hands, they hid edibles, left in the wood and marshy places. Having united in groups, the population persistently protected even poorly strengthened places. The Swedes task consisted in superseding of Russian armies for the limits of Ukraine and opening the way to Moscow. With that aim the Swedish command developed and began the intrusion on Slobozhanschina. But in the process of further advancement of the enemy army the national war inflamed more strongly. The increasing distribution was received by the so-called «Small war», i.e. guerrilla war, one century prior to the Patriotic War of 1812. The groups created by Russian from regular parts, Cossacks and local Ukrainian inhabitants, actively operated in the back of the Swedes, on their communications. Attempt to make the way to Moscow eventually failed. The Swedish regiments were compelled to depart to interfluve of Vorskla and Psel rivers. Considering developed, obviously adverse conditions for the army, Charles XII made decision to move to Poltava.
Peter the Great, Menshikov and Skoropadsky in Poltava fight
On the eve of the battle Peter I went round all regiments. His short patriotic references to soldiers and officers laid in the basis of the well-known order, demanding from soldiers to fight not for Peter, but for «Russia and Russian piety...». Also Charles XII tried to lift spirit of the army. Inspiring soldiers, Charles declared, that tomorrow they would have dinner in Russian carts where they were expected by the large extraction. On the eve of the battle the contradictory parties had following forces: Swedes had about 35 thousand persons at 39cannonry; Russian army totaled 42 thousand persons and 102 cannonry. Despite such, «insignificant number of armies on modern concepts» Poltava fight became the largest battle of the beginning of XVIII century. Before solving fight Peter addressed to soldiers with the well-known appeal: « Soldiers! The time, which will solve the destiny of the Motherland has come. So you shouldn't think, that you battle not for Peter, but for the state, handed over to Peter, for his sort and for Motherland... ». The map-scheme of Poltava fight
The victory near Poltava was marked with fundamental change during long-term wearisome Northern war and predetermined its outcome in favour of Russia. Near Poltava the destiny of not only Russia, but also all Northern Europe was solved. In such a way the world historians estimated the value of Poltava fight in our past history. Well, Poltava fight was included into the history not only as the material from encyclopaedias and textbooks on history of military art, but also as the works of art created by artists, poets and sculptors. It's enough to recollect "Poltava" by Aleksandr Pushkin, the masterpiece of world arts and crafts of Mikhail Lomonosov's mosaic or the Glory Monument in Poltava, created by Schedrin, Martos and Gordeyev. Poltava fight became a struggle symbol, of not only Russia, but also for all Slavic world against the Swedish aggression, struggle of Orthodoxy against Catholic and Lutheran domination. The monument of Glory in Poltava Capitulation of Swedes near Poltava
After all it is necessary not to forget that Russian and Ukrainian people on the one hand, and on the other hand-Swedes, Poles and a part of Saxons were the basic participants of fight, however, as well as of the Northern war. It is a different matter, that at suggestion of «some historians from the policy» on the basic plan of Poltava fight the other persons were taken away absolutely, whose role in that fight is reduced to « if he saw that means, that he participated», or to turning of historic facts, their roles and value "upside down" in that fight. And at the same time to introduce the forged corrective amendments for definition of «places and roles of the person in history» of these persons. Accordingly, the anniversary of Poltava fight, quite defensible and fairly, became the anniversary of the truth, instead of the holiday «The traitor's Day». The map of indigenously Russian lands of 1700
Three centuries passed since that nice day, however the word-combination «Poltava fight» is a buzz word again, for historians, and politicians. Already absolutely other accents are placed for definition of not only the value of fatal fight for Europe, but also concerning the personal participation of this or that historical character. It's not a secret that there is a question of monuments foundation to Charles XII and Mazepa, and not somewhere, but in Poltava. So, let me see, any sane historian will tell, that neither Charles XII, nor Mazepa had any relation to Poltava fight, after all every schoolboy knows, that the Swedish king was wounded shortly before the battle and didn't order the armies at all, and Mazepa ... simply consisted at Charles. So, for what reasoons to put monuments to those, who are considered to be the «dark persons not involved in the given historical event». As one is considered to be the invader, and another... But we spoke about the second one and put his acts, on the deserved historical shelf. However, the value of Poltava fight consisted in the fact that Ukrainian lands, at last, acquired the right to return in the bosom of their historical justice, i.e. to Malaya Russia. From the word-combination Malaya Russia the Ruthenia originated which is close to one, on sounding and an essence, and accordingly hated by another.
The official name of Ruthenia is incorrectly to connect with Ruthenia as province, i.e. the administrative unit of Russian empire, that was formed in 1764 on the basis of Chernigov, Kyiv, Poltava and Slobozhansky vicegerencies. But, primary registration occurred, just following the results of Poltava victory, and, at the principle performance of hetmen voluntariness of both coast. The historical inquiry from encyclopaedic dictionaries says, that: «Malaya Russia, later Ruthenia is a historical name of Galitsko-Volynsk lands in XIV-XV centuries, the territories of Podneprovye in XV-XVI centuries and the Left-bank Ukraine after the entrance in the structure of Russian kingdom after Pereyaslav Rada in XVII century».
It is not necessary to forget that after Poltava, the role and the value of incorporated confederative (but yet federal) Russian-Ukrainian state considerably increased. Not only Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and Crimean khanate, but also Turkey, arising Austrian empire and certainly reviving Germany-Prussian lands started to reckon with that force. The map of Ruthenia lands as a part of Russian empire
A number of historians, both of antiquities, and present times, connect the beginning of Ruthenia formation with the name of the hetman Skoropadsky, that's quite corresponds to the reality. After all times of Skoropadsky's board from 1708 till 1722, and later Polubotok's times were connected with the occurrence of the First Ruthenia board which existed from 1722 till 1727 (of original body, not as the management, so the control). Having accepted the Hetmanate (after the well-known Mazepa's "act-offence", Skoropadsky appealed to the tsar with the request for the statement of all rights, liberties and army technique. Tsar Peter promised not only to support Ruthenia people inviolably on their favour, but to confirm that event. Besides, during the period of wars which didn't stop, Ruthenian hetman "turned" in Ruthenia mandative hetman, though he couldn't operate independently any more (Mazepa's syndrome worked), but it's clear indeed. The Russian garrisons, put in the cities during the war, had been left only in some cities of Poltava regiment. In January 1710 tsar Peter gave to the hetman Skoropadsky the reading and writing with items confirmation, on which basis Bogdan Khmelnitsky reunited with Russia. Thus the legitimation of relations between Russia and Ruthenia occurred. However it is necessary to admit, that Peter had no full confidence to Skoropadsky (despite his personal participation in Poltava fight). It's a proved historical fact and one shouldn't ignore it, all the same. In spite of the fact that Peter I thought to leave everything in Ruthenia in the old manner, it turned out in a different way. At the hetman the special great Russian official Izmaylov was appointed for supervision. He was given two instructions - obvious and secret. The first obliged Izmaylov to observe so that the hetman didn't put aside any foremen from their post autocratically, so that the foremen were selected from the general council and were affirmed by the tsar for there were no Poles among foremen and districts were distributed and selected just with the consent of general foremen and with the sovereign permission.
In the secret articles Izmaylov was recommended to observe the hetman and the foreman acts, to come to see secretly about their incomes and to inform, who was the most confidant to the tsar from the Cossacks and what government he was worthy. Everything, as well as at socialism: «the control and the account». There's nothing to do these are the «features of the national policy». After Skoropadsky's death, the administration of Ruthenia temporarily passed into the hands of Polubotok's Chernigov colonel. On his request about the permission to choose the hetman, such decree followed: «As everyone knows, that since the times of first hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky even till Skoropadsky period, all hetmen have been the traitors, and what disaster our state has suffered, especialy Ruthenia, as still there is a fresh memory about Mazepa and it is necessary to seek the true and well-known person on the hetmen post, about what we have incessant diligence; until this one finds, the government which is ordered to operate under the given instruction is defined for the advantage of your edge; and before the hetman election there will be no stop of the business, so it's not necessary to bother about it». Alas, «bothering» of Polubotok became the reason that he together with his companions were concluded in Peter and Paul Fortress where he died in 1724. St.-Petersburg henceforth held all power over Ruthenia «on the short lead».
After the well-known Peter's «Prutsky campaign» in 1711 in Ruthenia there were many natives of Serbia and Moldova who, specifying that they helped Russia, demanded manors. They had to take such step as the promises of it obliged them, and tsar Peter ordered hetman to satisfy their requests. So, in due course, on the Ukrainian lands Slavic Serbia appeared, about what Slavyanoserbsky area of Lugansk region reminds us today.
Well, since 1726, i.e. since the times of Catherine I reign, Ruthenia board operated the case management henceforth. Only the seven-year period of Daniel Pavlovich Apostol Hetmanate (from 1727 till 1734) can be partly considered as the period of relative Getmanschina, subsequently replaced by the period of Mezhgetmanstvo (or Mezhdugetmanstvo), when Ruthenia board had been ruling on its lands for sixteen years, from 1734 till 1750 When Peter II acceded to the throne, it was decided to destroy Ruthenia board and to restore hetman dignity. Then Russian were forbidden to buy the lands in Ruthenia, «so that Ruthenia citizens hadn't been made animosity», that was very apprehended. Interesting, weither contemporary Ukrainian people know about such interdiction of Moscow in the middle of eighteenth century?
Daniel Pavlovich Apostol
When in 1734 Daniel Apostol who was called the «Great Blind» for absence of the right eye died, the time board was founded in Ruthenia, which received the name «Boards of hetman government». It consisted of six persons - three Russian and three Ruthenian persons (so in the order text), and should be guided, as Ruthenia rights, so imperial decrees. After Elizabeth Petrovna's accession Ruthenian foreman and colonels sent three deputies to Petersburg for the petition over Ruthenian affairs.
Elizabeth of Russia
In order to facilitate Ruthenia position, that suffered from war, the free transition of peasants from one place to another, forbidden by general army office in 1739 (i.e. not Moscow) was again resolved, and Russian were forbidden to assign Ruthenians to themselves (there is a documentary confirmation to it). But soon Cyrilo Razumovsky's (Rozumovsky) triumph came. The serious history, instead of «bed historiography», doesn't bear love and joys descriptions, and therefore we will leave the role and place of «man's force» of the count Alexey Rozumovsky (the eldest brother) offscreen in his influence on the empress. Today both historians and representatives of numerous army of creativity, connect the names of brothers Rozumovsky directly with the name of the Great empress. By the way, both in the state-political and in literary aspects. Sometimes the description of their "union" is oversaturated by different interpretation, myths, gossips, including, the «vilest manner» though, to the greater degree, it is a question about another brother. But that is not the point, in 1750 the premeditated on that post column Cyrilo Grigorevich Razumovsky was chosen as the hetmen by the empress, and the next year he moved to Ruthenia. The merits (true merits) of newly elected hetman is that he began to appoint and replace colonels autocratically not paying attention to existing legalisations, but, only from the state point of view. On the other hand, at Razumovsky the different gathering which were established by Samoylovich and Mazepa, laying down on the people hardly, were cancelled, also the customs on the borders of Ruthenia and Russia were closed and the freedom of commerce between the north and the south was declared. All that served as a powerful push to the development of Ruthenia edges. Today the Kirovograd city, former Elisavetgrad (or Elizavetgrad) - the largest fortress of empire on the southern borders of Ruthenia reminds of that period. But there was also a negative aspect, the so-called nowadays «dear friends», i.e. when at Razumovsky the foreman definitively got the best and, using related communications with the hetman, hastened to take the free villages away which still remained «in the eternal hereditary and successors possession». That formula, which for the first time appeared in hetman versatiles at Razumovsky was absolutely new. That things which hadn't been forgiven to his predecessors, remained without consequences. There is also a version «about special partnership of the empress and the favourite» ... But, according to the history, the end, of this or that action always comes. In 1764 in Gluhov hetman Razumovsky gathered Ruthenia foreman on the general Rada, which appealed to new empress Catherine II with the request for restoration and acknowledgement of their rights.
At the same foremen meeting, for the persons, wishing to please Razumovsky, the question of Hetmanate establishment in Ruthenia, hereditary in the sort of count Cyril Grigorevich Razumovsky was opened. Hetman liked that thought very much, but it didn't meet sympathy in the greater part of the foreman and among the higher Ruthenian clergy. And, though, the application hadn't been submitted, it became known about it on the coasts of Neva. As result, even the thought about Getmanschina and favourite's act, irritated Catherine II. In the most confidential manual to the prince A. Vyazemsky, appointed in 1764 as the general public prosecutor, the empress expressed on that occasion: «Malaya Russia, Liflyandia and Finland are province essence, which are ruled by the confirmed privileges and it would be rather obscene to break these dismissal suddenly; however, to name them foreign and to manage them in such a way is more than an error, and can be named as the nonsense with reliability. These provinces as well as Smolensk province are necessary to be Russified and for that they will cease to look as the wolves in the wood. The attack is rather easy if the reasonable people be selected in these provinces; when there will be no hetman in Ruthenia, they should try, that the hetman's name also disappeared».
Razumovsky was called to St.-Petersburg, he was accepted very coldly and was compelled to hand in resignation, despite the «special relations» with the former empress at the court yard. On November, 10th 1764 instead of the hetman board the Second Ruthenia board was confirmed, which president was the count Peter Aleksandrovich Rumyantsev in the rank of Ruthenia governor.
The board was expanded and consisted of four Rruthenian and four Russian members. On the subsequent events in Ruthenia the big influence was rendered by G.N.Teplov's note «About disorders which occur from rights and habits abusing, confirmed by reading and writing of Ruthenia». It was a very serious document which confirmed inability of Ukrainian foremen to operate the country and the people fairly and decently (possibly, therefrom it is necessary to search for the bases of today's corruption in the country). Thanks to Teplov's legal support, at the beginning Rumyantsev operated very hotly and vigorously. He struggled against red tape in courts, tried to result in popularity laws in Ruthenia and to establish department county courts, tried to define lawyers for helping Cossacks in county and city courts. Sometimes his energy passed into the power excess, but it was justified partly, since the Ukrainian people hadn't forgotten Mazepa's board. However, after twenty years after resignation of Rozumovsky, there were serious changes in the relation of foreman selectivity. There was such concept, as great Russian szlachta, which became a basis of the people enslavement. 1783 became the year of serfdom returning on Ruthenia, when the free leaving from misters stopped. The government principles, on their similarity were continuation of Peter the Great policy and were characteristic for that period, i.e. introduction of the European way of life in Ruthenian remote places.
Nevertheless, Ruthenia creation as administrative-political edge of empire, is entirely connected with Cyril Rozumovsky who entered into the history as Razumovsky. Therefore, it will be pertinent to tell some words about his life and activity.
Younger brother Alexey Razumovsky, the favourite of Russian empress Elizabeth of Russia, Cyrilo Grigorevich was born on March, 18th, 1728 in the family manor of their father, nowadays it is the village Lemeshi of Kozeletsky area, Chernigov region. A number of historians, especially domestic, i.e. Ukrainian (including me), persistently specify on the Ukrainian roots of his surname and exclusively write it as Rozumovsky, though his true surname, however, as well as his brother's name was -Rozum. But there is also one more version that it's not the surname, but the nickname, as brothers were very clever intrinsically. Thanking to the brother's «special position», he got the fine education in Europe (Germany, France, Italy). It's interesting that Teplov was his «God scientific father», the «captain-instructor» in the sea of knowledge and assistant on Ruthenia affairs. Thanks to the received knowledge, the court influence of their brother in 1746 at the age of 18 years old he was appointed as the President of St.-Petersburg Imperial academy of sciences at the directory guardianship of academy management. After the brother's death (there is the version that Alexey died not by his own death), remained the supporter of "female line" of Russian empire board and supported the palace revolution of 1762 in which result Catherine II ascended to the throne. The history also testifies, that on October, 27th, 1746 Razumovsky married the maid of honour of the imperial court yard Catherine Ivanovna Naryshkina. The couple had six sons and five daughters. After resignation, together with the family (except two sons who remained at the court yard) he returned in native Ruthenia and lodged in the palace in Baturin. As it is accepted to speak nowadays, he «forced to respect himself», i.e. silently died on January, 3rd, 1803 on 75th year of his life and was buried in Baturin's Voskresensky church.
This is the stamp from the already well-known series «Hetmen of Ukraine». It is necessary to pay attention to the year of its release (2003), i.e. to the 200 anniversary from the date of the death and palace image in Baturin, the blossoming and decline period ...
Rozumovsky's palace and its condition before restoration, represented on the picture of Lukomsky.
Today Rozumovsky palace became not only the "visiting card" of the hetman capital, i.e. Baturin, but also the pearl of Ruthenia capital.
Palace in the period of restoration and its opening by the President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko
Cyrilo Rozumovsky's name is necessary to connect with not only the last Hetmanate of Ukraine (not considering, the last hetman Skoropadsky), but also with the blossoming of Ukraine, through the development of all Ruthenian edges. Today, the concept Ruthenia makes ones feeling the admiration, the second ones - misunderstanding, at the third ones - political hatred. But, why? After all it was long time ago under the historical measures.
At using the term of Ruthenia or at the reference to the historical events, connected with the mentions of «Ruthenian» I always say, that Ukraine and Ruthenia are not the same concepts. Anyhow, they are connected between each other. And the link of this chain are the roots: Ros, Russia, Belaya Russia, Chernaya Russia, Malaya Russia. And, anyhow, the basic territory of Russia-Ukraine, initially located on the part of the present Ukraine. But, only the part, instead of all Ruthenia. Therefore, speaking about Ukraine as a whole, it is necessary to understand its modern borders, and, concerning, Ruthenia we should consider the defining territory as that one, which was liberated by Bogdan Khmelnitsky and attached to Russia and, in due course, that business was continued by Cossacks and Russian army, under the guidance of Skoropadsky, Peter the Great, Elizabeth of Russia and Catherine II (without Novorossia, of course).
It's not the secret, that on the open spaces of near abroad the project «Ruthenia - Ukraine» appeared and the relation to it is ambiguously. And, that is interesting, even in the western historical school he found his place, but definition of "borders" of the given historical-political edge, for some reasons is opposite.
That's a very strange definition of geographical territory of Ruthenia by representatives of the western historical school for whom, neither Kyiv, nor Podneprovye lands, are included into its structure ...
This project, in my opinion, has the right to live, but taking into account of historical justice, without the gamble, as from the one hand, so from the other hand. If to adhere it only to the second part, i.e. "Ukraine", the realisation of «Ruthenia project:» «Ruthenia - Ukraine» will face many difficulties, as the «Ukrainian Ruthenian project» which is the «state pillar» on which the consciousness of political elite of modern Ukraine, especially Western Ukrainian, i.e. Galitsk, Ruthenia or Russian origins are based. In effect the «Ukrainian Ruthenian project» was also that means with which help Polonised natives of Galicia affirmed in their supervising position in relation to Ruthenians before the disorder of Austro-Hungarian empire. And during the Soviet time, especially after September of 1939 «Ruthenian Ukrainian project» came into the policy foreground, on which the full Ukrainization of all republic, was admitted as a little bit «erroneous». Where is the middle in this dispute? If to look narrowly at scheme of Ruthenia presented by the western historians we will see the total nonsense according to which, Transdniestria (Ukrainian, of course), and Zadunaischina, both Black Sea Coast, Crimea, Priazovye, and Tavia were in the structure of Ruthenia. But it's the absurdity, and where is Novorossia, at least?
Thus, finishing historical annals about an epoch of last hetman, I would like to notice, that Ruthenia, is a really big edge as a part of Ukraine. But the edge had its traditions, culture, heroes, history, communications, and many other «own» things. Well, how to deny Ruthenia when Grigory Skovoroda called it as his mother, and Slobodskaya Ukraine was named as his native aunt. And what to say against Taras Shevchenko, saying, that Ruthenia was his country, and Ukraine - his native land.
The creativity of contemporaries had a huge value for Ruthenia development. Antonovich, Chubinsky, Maksimovich, Tarnovsky, Berlin, Bantysh-Kamensky, Markevich, Doroshenko (the great-great-grandson, the minister in UNR) and many-many other men of science of the nineteenth century considered Ruthenia as not only the component of Russian empire, but also as the basis of all Ukraine, including that was behind the Zbruch. And what to tell about the works of art describing Ruthenia, as the edge, country, and as the national-political unit. Alas, to throw out Ruthenaian epoch from the history is the same as not to admit Kiev Russia and to reject the river Ros presence.
Nikolay Sergeev «Apple-trees in colour. In Ruthenia» The farm in Ruthenia
But the development of Ruthenian edge, as well as its territorial expansion, hadn't stopped in the end of eighteenth century. By the time of the second Polish devision or «Division of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1793» the right-bank Podneprovye, having become the Right-bank Ruthenian was attached to Russia, but it will be already told about in the following section about Catherine and Potyomkin's times.
The author of the article: Sergey Smoliannikov (translated from Russian by Irina Gerkalyuk)