Ukraine and its people on the way of democracy and independence

(April of 1985 and the so-called named «April theses» of Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev - on August, 24th 1991)
On March, 12th 1985 after the death of Chernenko under support of Gromyko, Ligachyov and other members of the Political bureau Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev was selected the secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU. In the prime of life, vigorous, charming, with lively wit, democratic, he was sharply allocated against the previous heads, therefore he was met with the big enthusiasm in the society. It is necessary to remind that Gorbachev came to the Political bureau in the last years of Antropov's life and at once joined the group of reformatory adjusted politicians. Soon Mikhail Sergeevich carried out the shifts in the top management, being released from the old personnel. Soon Gorbachev and his colleagues (Ligachyov, Yeltsin, Yakovlev, Shevardnadze, etc.) initiated the «socialism updating» which essence they saw in connection of socialism and democracy.
Ельцин и Горбачев на апрельском пленуме ЦК КПСС – друзья и соратники 
Yeltsin and Gorbachev on April plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU - they were friends and colleagues.
In the early eighties the crisis in Soviet Union and in the union republics, including Ukraine, captured all spheres of life that affected the delay of economic development and led to the falling of standard of living of the population. In addition to these "troubles", "unsuccessful" (to put it mildly) Afghani war and Chernobyl accident definitively undermined the trust to the idea of the world socialism in general, and in Soviet Union, particularly. Therefore on April plenum of 1985 the course on the change of economic, social and foreign policy of the USSR was taken by the secretary general of the Central Committee of the CPSU Mikhail Gorbachev. The democratic revolution which, as always, began in the Russian Federation, promoted realization of the right to self-determination in the separate union republics, which aspired people to declaration of independence, both in the national-cultural plan, and administrative-political aspect.
Today nobody doesn't measure the life from one congress of the CPSU to another and will hardly remember, except historians and «specialists of party-political work» for what exactly June or July plenum of 80th became famous and also for what documents it was marked in our memory. But among this variety of sessions and meetings there is one event, which 25th anniversary will be celebrated in April, 2010. It is a question of one party plenum which took place in 1985, to be more exact on April, 23rd, which received the name «Gorbachev's April theses» and became the beginning of reorganization. Reorganization is the materialized concept, which entered the life of each Soviet person, as something like, the well-known, but something unattainable, as vodka bottle on the table or the orbital body in the space. That «reorganization thinking» entered our world with the name of «its parent», Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachev.
Why to dissemble, in those days the Ukrainian people began to see clearly, and the society of Ukraine-Russia ripened. In the second half of 80th the new political and morally-psychological conditions were created, the aggravation of social and economic crisis in the society, deepening of crisis phenomena in the CPSU, and CPU, together with the appeared criticism of their activity influenced their formation; there were also such factors as possibility to express the dissatisfaction with explanations of reasons of Chernobyl accident, actions on liquidation of its consequences and difficult ecological and demographic republic conditions in terms of publicity, serious problems in the field of national policy, first of all falling of the Ukrainian language status among the Ukrainian intelligency, and aggravated attention to the «white stains» of the Ukrainian history, national symbolic, importance growth of universal values, and other factors. As a result in the society, including Ukrainian society, the necessity and possibility of changes was realized more and more .
The creative intelligency, especially Russian, Moscow, in particular, played an important role «in the society discernment». Unlike political terminology, from the creative point of view, the reorganization of consciousness began literally to the day of April plenum when the first more or less objective words were sounded. Novels and stories were issued in «thick magazines» which until then had been hopelessly lying in the literary tables or «despair baskets». Already in the end of April of 1985 on Moscow scene there was Valery Fokin's performance «Speak!.» that became an appeal for the country, as if: «the customs, i.e., capital, was given OK», and in May of the same year with the issue of Valentine Ovechkin's «Regional everyday life», it turned to the symbol of publicity and democracy in regions.
On that wave supported by the double press «we from above, and you from below», there were the key phrases of Gorbachev's political lexicon: to turn economy to the person, to create worthy working and life conditions of the Soviet people, to reorient economy on people's social needs, to make all for the social development of village, to create normal living conditions for the rural worker, to raise the standard of life among the bigger part of population, to provide each family with an apartment or house to 2000, to care of veterans of war and work, to cut down the administrative expenses, to establish the sanguineous socialist market, to create the legal socialist state, to update the national policy and to solve many other problems. V.I.Lenin's complete set of works was taken for the basis.
Certainly, such slogans and appeals, in the counterbalance to the «celebratory theses» involved the people «from Brest to Kamchatka».
    Понять перестройку, настроить мышление     Понять перестройку, настроить мышление 
Понять перестройку, настроить мышление
To understand reorganization, to adjust thinking, to make what everyone wants, to highlight the reorganization, to find conservatives, to put careless out of the way, to move to a new level of knowledge, to make life new and unimaginable. Day by day there were more and more words, people, not having time to familiarize with the positions of one "Government program", received the fresh program for the morning. The well-known words since the childhood were replaced with «dribbling pluralism», grammatical substitute and set of beautiful adverbs. And that "list" was supplemented with constant foreign voyages of «Mikhail Sergeevich» and «eternal memory» of Raisa Maksimovna. As it turned out, all it was agitation and propaganda form of influence on minds and hearts of the Soviet people, not more... And the people, not having understood reorganization, but having understood the true place of the First and Last one; itself answered the diligence of Mikhail Sergeevich by means of true folklore - chastooshkas.
Но самым серьезным испытанием для всей страны 

Чернобыльская катастрофа

Чернобыльская катастрофа

 Чернобыльская катастрофа     Чернобыльская катастрофа
Chernobyl accident occurred on April, 26th, 1986 as a result of failure on the fourth power unit of Chernobyl atomic power station. The destruction had explosive character, the reactor was completely destroyed, and the considerable quantity of radioactive substances was thrown out in the environment. The failure is regarded as the largest failure for all history of world nuclear power, as by prospective quantity of victims and people, who suffered from its consequences, so by economic damage. At the moment of failure Chernobyl atomic power station was the most powerful in the USSR. Unlike nuclear bombardments of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the explosion reminded very powerful «dirty bomb», which basic amazing factor became the radioactive infection of the district for many years. The radioactive cloud from the failure passed over the European part of the USSR, Eastern Europe and Scandinavia. Approximately 60 % of radioactive deposits were dropped out in the territory of Belarus. Nearby 200 000 persons (more than 120 thousand Ukrainians) were evacuated from the zones, subjected to the pollution. Chernobyl failure became an event of the great political value for the USSR, and that marked the investigation course of its occurrence reasons, after all there is no common opinion, concerning its true reasons. It is only known that on April, 26th at 1 o'clock 23 minutes, 58 seconds the series of explosions destroyed the reactor and the building of 4th power unit. On April, 29th the high radiating background was registered in Poland, Germany, Austria, Romania, on April, 30th in Switzerland and Italy, on May, 1st and 2nd in France, Belgium, Netherlands, Great Britain, Greece, on May, 3rd in Israel, Kuwait, Turkey... Not less than for a week Chernobyl became the whole world problem... Afghan and Chernobyl became the bases of final trust fracture to the state management. Besides, the destruction of nuclear-powered submarine "Member of the Komsomol" became one more shock for the Soviet society, the first excitements in Kazakhstan, also added «oils in fire of doubts».
On May, 1st, under Gorbachev's order (this fact has been recently recognized) in capital of Ukraine on Kreschatik the workers with kiddies went out on the demonstration, as well as on the central streets of other cities of Ukraine. Later all trains on the south were home driven by the same children who breathed that hell. Despite reorganization and new thinking, the country leaders, including and republican, forgot about «socialism with the human face», and liquidation of the criminal negligence presented as the feat.
Фотография членов Политбюро ЦК КПУ 
The photo of the members of the Political bureau of Central Committee KPU and heads of republic was made on 1st of May 1986. As the true communists, they were ready to go on the last fight. But whether it was necessary to endanger the young lives (after all we know the middle age of the members of Political bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU).
To please old, but beautiful dogmas, there was the question: people or supernumeraries. I'm agree, it is easy now to tell and give estimation to those actions, especially taking into account the world analysis, and when the senior companions tell about party discipline and warn, that you didn't live at that time. But I lived in that times which, alas, had stopped... as well as those who trusted in «socialism with the human face».
Having realized all horror of the accident, all USSR sent 800 thousand regular soldiers and "liquidators-guerrillas", i.e. mobilized which middle age was, as the Christ age - 33 years old to the place of the general trouble ... According to all available information, from 1988 to 2008 more than fifteen thousand liquidators died. Two persons in one day ...
There was the real feat indeed, at the accident liquidation, at evacuation, at the resettlement, and at new villages and settlements reconstruction. Some scientists with the world name say that Ukraine received enormous experience, but, God grant, that it won't be useful any more.

Остались заброшенные хаты

Остались заброшенные хаты

 

Остались заброшенные хаты

There were abandoned huts, deserted children's playgrounds and palaces of culture. But thanking to still powerful and not disorganized Soviet Union, Chernobyl homeless fire victim received new houses and settlements.
Очередным рубежом перестройки
Очередным рубежом перестройки
The First Congress of People's Deputies which took place two decades ago - on May, 25th, 1989 was the next boundary of reorganization and its last heritage, but our political memory, for some reasons, overlooks its decisions. After all that Congress of deputies of the USSR - was the state national parliament in the history (though there were five of them, the main was the first one), which were selected by the people on free elections. The political platform, on which politicians freely and rather fairly competed with each other, was firstly created in the history of the state. For the first time Ukrainian figures, and not representatives of party bodies stepped on the arena of political fights. But the most important thing - the whole country observed it on the air. I remember, how people crowded at TVs at the work, how they put the ear at the receiver, how they listened with the bated breath: «All is possible, if it is authorised by the law» as there were appeals to creation of national political movements.
Some people admired Sobchak, others - violent Saharov, the third ones- the self-denying Kazannikov, the fourth asked who Yavorivsky was. But any housewife knew, who Afanasev was, and why Ligachyov didn't like him, and on what side «Mikhail Sergeevich» was. There was also an unusual sensation of freedom, sincerity, long-awaited victory of reason and general civil unity, there were also mute questions and to what it would result all of us. The rating of Congress translation was fantastic and beat over all insurgents and serials. People suddenly started to feel citizens, directly, as after the February revolution. For a short historical instant they had believed that the country future was in their hands. One didn't want to reconstruct anything; others at once saw «vigorous movements of the political broom around the heap of garbage», behind "the sensation" connected with reorganization. But there were also the third who told, let them do what they want, but don't touch me. And all that national vinaigrette created the menu of the nitty-gritty of politics from incompatible products of political digestion. Running forward, I will tell that, in due course, that vinaigrette not having acquired in the society organism, excuse me for the expression, «was barfed up» in August of 1991.
As soon as the First congress ended the national-political movements as mushrooms after the rain «from Moscow, to the most suburbs» started to be created to execute its recommendations.
So on the political Olympus on September, 10th 1989 appeared the national-political movement «National movement of Ukraine for reorganization» or «Narodny Ruh of Ukraine for reorganization» which leader was "man of the sixties" Ivan Drach. There was also its abbreviated name RUH or NRU. That movement which became the really national and international event, in the beginning represented people's association, with  the opposite views, from liberally adjusted communists to radical nationalists. In due course, however, the majority of communists and the right radicals left the ranks of movement in connection with prevalence of participants with national democratic views. «The live chain» from Ivano-Frankovsk to Kyiv, held on January, 22nd by the 71st anniversary of not taken place association of two Ukraines - «Act of Zluka» became the first action of RUH. But people wished some bread and shows, and it doesn't matter that the textbooks on history didn't give the estimation to the «Act of Zluka» and didn't tell the truth about the events of 1919. The main thing - is the sincere impulse based on the legend.
Сегодня РУХу двадцать лет,  что сделано… 
Today RUH is twenty years and what has been done...
Были манифестации и шествия, как в 1917-м 
Были манифестации и шествия, как в 1917-м 
There were demonstrations and processions as in 1917, there were its own heroes returned convict, all it was, as well as «once upon a time ... many years ago». 
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