Broad masses saw the primordial enemies in the Poles-Catholics that's why they didn't want to listen to their propagation. The propagation among landowners and descendants of army foremen had also no success. The case when such agent appeared in one of the «villages» (districts) of the Left bank and addressed to the «szlyachta marshal» (so the leaders of nobility were called, though in my opinion, as the historian, marshalka - will be correct), the descendant of old foreman family with which sons he studied at the Kharkiv University. He was listened to attentively and "sympathetically" and he was told that the question should have been discussed together with neighbour-landowners who would soon arrive for that purpose. When the landowners, and all Ukrainians gathered and the Pole stated them the plan of creation of independent Ukraine by means of Frenchmen, the propagandist there and then, was severely flogged in manor house, bound and sent to the city for the police handover».
There were no additional data whether that case was individual. But the fact that it was typical for moods of the Ukrainian people and its «the higher echelon», can be confirmed with reliability as there are no any proofs anywhere that at least small groups or even units of the mullions-strong population of Ukraine-Russia, Ruthenia and Novorussia gave way to similar arrangements and took Napoleon's side as it had been done by Poles of Ruthenia, Prussia and Austro-Hungary.
The whole nineteenth century in the history of Ukraine-Russia can be possibly named as the "Golden Age" of our state. Judge by you, from the beginning of nineteenth century till the period of the «second distemper», i.e. events of 1905-1907, there was no serious conflict on the territory of those parts of Ukraine-Ruthenia which were a part of Russian empire. The fields of Patriotic War of 1812-1815 passed Ukraine though many Ukrainians among whom there was also the well- known Ivan Kotlyarevsky, went into battle «for belief, for Tsar and for Fatherland», as well as the known Decembrist mutiny of 1825 didn't concerned it. There was a Southern society with its heads indeed, but all that was only in St.-Petersburg. Thus, practically all the century long Ruthenia, to be exact its provinces, lived and prospered at the level of visible and true well-being that became a basis for creation of a new kind of political activity - education of the Ukrainian consciousness.
One of the reasons of such direction occurrence was that after the nice campaigns of Russian army from Moscow to Paris, it was accompanied by "visiting" of the educated Europe, with its culture and way of life. The Russian army won the enemy, the «haughty Napoleon Bonaparte» indeed, but, together with it, absorbed the spirit of the European democratism, that, in due course, embodied in the revolt of Decembrists.
However, strengthening of Russia on the European battlefield, its aspiration to the decision of a definitive question on the Black Sea straits, and also victories of the Russian army and the Black Sea Cossacks during the Balkan wars of 1825-1828th not only put on the alert all remained empires (Austro-Hungary, Prussia and the Great Britain) and republics (France and Italy, the last one, during the certain period), but caused the certain adequate actions. The cost of these actions - East or, more known, Crimean war of 1853-1856th.
Operations of East war practically didn't concerned Ruthenia provinces (the exception is bombardments from the sea of Odessa) as there passed on all «seaside front» empires - from bombardment Dyerp (present Tartu) on Baltic and the Solovetsky monastery in the north before the attempt of troops landing around Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka. By the way, the nice son of Poltava lands Zavoyko supervised the heroic defence of Kamchatka.
The basic events of East war which turned in Crimean war occurred on the lands of Taurian province, to be exact, in Crimea, around Evpatoria, and then Sevastopol. And, in spite of the fact that Crimea in general, and Sevastopol in particular those years by right were considered as Novorussia and its defence, i.e. in Sevastopol, became another bright page in heroic annals of glory of fraternal people. Names of our fellow countrymen Peter Koshka, a legendary surgeon Pirogov, a scout-plastun Poteryayko and thousand others are entered by gold letters in the history of this city of glory, a city, that is worthy being worshiped, the city which created the germ of Christianity in Russia.
On February, 19th, 1861 under Alexander's II manifesto the serfdom cancellation was proclaimed. According to the reform the personal dependence of peasants upon landowners was liquidated. Peasants acquired the right to conclude commercial transactions, to be engaged in the craft or trade freely, to pass in other social classes (petty bourgeoises, merchants), to enlist in educational institutions, to have own movable and real estate, freely dispose it and inherit under the law. They also received the civil rights. But the way from declaration of the rights and freedom to their realization was not simple at all. The peasants obliged to pay the repayment to landowners for the received allotments, which sizes, as a rule, conceded to previous plots (except Right-bank Ukraine) and which were the worst. Because of the appropriate sum of money absence they were compelled to borrow them from the state, and then to pay throughout 49 years with percent for the loan, they received. So the peasant got to dependence both on the landowner, and on the state. And redemption operations brought the big capitals to the landowners that could be used for the household handover into the market and capitalist rails. How that reminds the events of today concerning the lands shares of our grain-growers ... Alas, the history didn't learn the hardworking, but naive Ukrainian people.
Hardly something similar could be seen in Austro-Hungary during the same period, though the percentage parity of Ukrainians wasn't much various.
Nevertheless, there is quite natural question if Ukrainians treated so kindly in Russian why in the second half of nineteenth century there appeared a strong national-cultural movement of Ukrainians "Prosvita"? In my opinion, it is necessary to search for the answer at the heart of the serfdom abolished "de jure", but, it is far not "de facto", especially in Ukraine. The general position of simple «people» in Ruthenia, basically, corresponded to all social Empire. The smallest part of population of Ruthenia-Ukraine lived in the cities (no less than the tenth part) while "privately owned" or serfs, "state" or liberated peasants, i.e. Cossacks were the basic part of it. Their distribution in different parts of Ukraine-Russia was various, as well as their position was different too. Position of the serfs entirely depending on arbitrariness of landowners was the heaviest. According to 1860, before serfdom liquidation, in all Ukraine there had been five millions serfs, at the general population of Ruthenia in amount of thirteen millions serfs (though in the other part of Russian Empire that parity was considerable more and reached almost ninety percent). The Right-bank part of Ukraine was the villeinage, where position of agricultural population was the hardest. The landowners there were exclusively Poles who looked at the orthodox peasants as on the slaves deprived of the civil rights and treated them respectively. Alas, the orthodox imperial government was on the guard of an existing social order and supported it in every possible way. The rights and privileges of the Russian nobility were granted to all landowners, Polish laws to which they got used still held good for a long time, and in the courts the Polish language was the core.
Such state of affairs also caused desire of Ruthenian people and parts of new Ukrainian intelligency to struggle for the culture, language, but not as opposition to all Russian, and Polish ...
To confirm the conclusions, I'm compelled to ship the reader in «the history chasm», to be exact, to suggest plunging into the beginning of nineteenth century and to return in 1804. Acts of this year became the basis for creation of national education network, to what the documents of that epoch testify.
With obligatory censorship
But, again this notorious "but". Despite the jerk in national development of Ukrainians-Ruthenians, the life of the basic part of population of all Russian Empire was absolutely identical. Already in the beginning of the "Golden Age" the broad masses of agricultural population in the sense of the serfdom weight, didn't differ from the Great Russian peasants. And on the Right bank where much from the serf practice of Poland remained, serfs' position was even heavier, than in the Russia. The Cossacks of the Left bank which didn't not know the serfdom and some categories of agricultural population, who under the «Catherine's blessing» occupied Novorossia lands, represented the happy exception. The state peasants of both Russian and Ruthenian provinces equally suffered Arakcheev's severe experience of "military settlements". Russian and Ukrainians-Ruthenian equally suffered the heaviness of quarter century military service. Only in 1839 the system of manors tenancy with the state peasants who had been in exchange imposed by the monetary duty was cancelled. There were no free Cossacks on the Right bank as Poland had the time to enslave everybody. The fatal document defining the order of mass residing of Jews in empire relates the same time, arrived to Russia from Poland and Romania also, their moving, or "settled way of life" (whence there was a term «the line of the settled way of life») in certain provinces (far, not the worst), establishments of public management system, by appointment of kagalnichy etc. Thus, the picture of sufficient attention from the state machinery to the national citizens is quite foreseeable.
At the same time, concerning the development of the Ukrainian culture and language, politics developed by the sinusoidal principle, i.e. one day it went upwards and another day it faded, passing in decline. Opening of hundreds Sunday Ruthenian schools gave an impulse to the development of cultural activity in general and legalisation of Ruthenian language, in particular. But there is a rather confirmed version, that Austro-Hungary interfered in the affairs of strengthening of Ukraine-Russia cultural-national revival, to be exact, a part of Polish szlachta «approached to the emperor». Seeing the gravity of national revival in Russian Empire of Ruhtenia vector, the program on discredit as most Petersburg group of Ruthenia culture, so Cyrilo-Mefodievsky Brotherhoods was developed. And it was arranged in such a way if all initiative on revival of «ukrainianship in all its display», started from Vienna and Krakow ...
Today it's difficult to speak how serious it is, but if to combine all historical components of that time taking into account events of 1861 in Poland (the next revolt) a very picturesque picture which became one of the reasons of the of the well-known Emsky decree edition, can turn out. So, for example, «the Petersburg Committee of Literacy», in 1862 appealed to the government with the request «to permit studying on Ruthenian language in elementary schools of Ukraine», and in the books list for schools, more than half of them were Ukrainian. That offer caused a hot polemic about Ukrainian language (or as it was marked in documents of that time - Ruthenian language) in general, and about its suitability in the cultural life. Poles who, according to Grushevsky, «wished to tighten Ukrainians under the old historical Poland», from the thought of its restoration they didn't ever refuse, interfered in the «language-cultural dispute». As well as always, in the past, the «sincere care» of Poles about Ukrainians came to no good: opponents of the Ukrainian language started to spread rumors about close cooperation of Ukrainian language supporters with Poles, who lifted revolt one day. The result wasn't slow to affect in the form of Emsky decree which suspended the development of Ukrainian cultural reform. After Societies and Brotherhoods closing the number of restrictions for the Ukrainian cultural activity was entered soon: in Ukrainian language (Ruthenian) language (on official terminology - "adverb") it was authorized to print only historical monuments, and from the new literature only fictional works (verses, plays, stories, novels), thus on the all-Russian spelling, instead of rules newly-made «grammars». Ukrainian concerts, representations, reports were prohibited in general. As a result, the Ukrainian national-cultural activity stood.
It is known that in Galicia at that time Austro-Hungary, in its purposes, did the rate on the Ukrainian movement and created possibility for its development. Russian «Ukrainian nationalist» came there. Once in the seventeenth century the centre of Ukraine-Russia culture moved from Lviv on the east to Kyiv, so in the late sixties of nineteenth century, the moving in the opposite direction began. The situation when «everyone was suddenly happy» appeared. The short-sighted imperial government was very glad that «uneasy element» went abroad; Austria and its Polish component which forward-looking policy skillfully cultivated ideas of the Ukrainian separatism was happy too, understanding under it Russia tearing away from all Ukraine and its joining to Galicia in the borders of Austro-Hungary; "Ukrainian nationalists" the Russian Ukraine were also rather consent as instead of arrests and deportations for the activity they had an opportunity to develop and to continue it in Austria.
Nevertheless, the "Golden Age" gave us Shevchenko, Dragomanov, Chubinsky, Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, Kotlyarevsky, Franko, Gulak-Artemovsky, Shashkevich, Vagilevich, Golovatsky, Kostomarov, Grushevsky, Kotsyubinsky, Gogol, Chekanovsky, Kulish (Kulesha), Antonovich, and also many other glorified Ukrainians and ancestors of modern Ukrainian literature, art and culture.
I'm compelled and simply obliged, to tell some words about the great person of Ukraine and Russia, the author of our National anthem, Pavlo Platonovich Chubinsky. In far 1862, he got in the North not by his own will, but for his thoughts and expectations about the simple Ukrainian people. But, no matter how some historians spoke, not for their verse «It hasn't already died in Ukraine». No and once again no. The history accurately testifies, that being «the national lawyer» of Pereyaslav Rada he entered the conflict with the brother of Kyiv governor Trepovoy ... All right, I will tell everything that I know.
According to the norms of any state constitution, State Arms and the Anthem are its attributes of the national sovereignty (i.e. the states). The same position is officially fixed in the Organic law of Ukraine - Constitutions. There is not a secret any more for each schoolboy that the author of the words of Ukrainian Anthem is Pavlo Chubinsky, and Mikhail Verbitsky the author of the music, accordingly. Concerning the persons of both authors, it is necessary to notice, that during the lifetime they not only didn't know about existence of each other, but also didn't assume that the honour to become the hymn authors of our countries would drop out exactly to them. The matter is that neither that, nor another, were not professionals in that branch of creativity, as Verbitsky was the church prior in the village Mlyny during his lifetime (nowadays Podkarpatsky voivodeship of Poland where he was buried), and Chubinsky was the lawyer on speciality for whom the poem «It hasn't already died in Ukraine...» was only a single instance on the field of poetry. And, besides, it is necessary to remember, that citizen of Austro-Hungary was the music's author, and the patriot of Russia was the author of verses.
Concerning personality of Pavlo Platonovich Chubinsky, biographic dictionaries of the end of nineteenth century gave enough reasoned journal concerning his life, activity and creativity that you will never tell about the present relation to Chubinsky from the country leaders. There is no sense to retell myths and fictions of some historians about dramatic destiny of Pavlo Chubinsky throughout 45-year-old period of his life. I will simply try to tell the truth about the person for whom - only the equality of each person before the Law was the meaning of the life. Well, in my opinion, it is necessary to pay more attention to the person who by soul and body, remained on the lands of Kyiv region forever. Daily some tens thousands of Kyiv citizens and visitors of our capital land at the airport of Borispol. Hundred thousand people daily pass the city of Borispol through the companion of Kyiv. And on the magnificent capital line among huge number of publicity boards you won't find anyone who would say, that in that place, around the farm Chubinka the outstanding scientist-ethnographer and geographer, journalist, business executive and polar explorer Pavlo Chubinsky was born. Only on the entrance to Borispol there is a board, reminding that in Borispol (though it is not true), Chubinsky was born. Really, Pavlo Platonovich is the author of anthem words, but his main achievement was that he was an outstanding Russian scientist of the world level.
However, everything in stages as they say. Pavlo Chubinsky was born on January, 15th (27), 1839 in the father's manor of the farm Chubinka which hasn't remained till nowadays, except the old grove. The present settlement Chubinskoe had no relation to the father's manor- the settlement, is just opposite to former manor. His childhood passed in the parents' house where he received the home education, and then in Pereyaslav district school. Later - the Second Kyiv grammar school (the grammar school building remained, its modern address is parkway Shevchenko, 18) which Pavlo graduated from with a silver medal. By the way, all Kyiv grammar schools on open spaces of Russian Empire were quoted at the high enough level to what the list of the outstanding scientists who passed through the hearths of Kyiv alma-mothers testifies. As the most perspective student, Pavlo was sent in the Petersburg University, where he graduated the faculty of law. There came 1861, the time of liberal reforms of autocracy on the field of defeat in Crimean (East) war. Not indifferent to the peasants' destiny of his native Pereyaslav district (for that time Borispol was a town and was a part of the given district), Pavlo left the capital of Empire and arrived on the constant place of service to Kyiv, at first he was the teacher of law in a female grammar school, and then in the appellate court of Kyiv province. By all his activity on the post of the judicial police officer, he achieved legality in the rights for all inhabitants of the district that, for the clear reasons, the "owner" of district Feodor Trepovoy, the brother of the Kiev governor, didn't like. At that time in Kyiv the work of the judicial police officer Chubinsky «About rake-off, as the legal bribery from the district authorities» resulted practically all landowners, in the "active" furiousness. It also should be added that in 1861 the third revolt in Poland and, considering the fact that in the districts of Kyiv province there lived many Poles who also went to the fair judicial police officer for the justice, the relation to Chubinsky, from retinue of the governor, wasn't good. There were charges against Pavlo Chubinsky that he appealed peasants to live as good and free, as landowners and officials and recommended to stop paying «rake-offs» to the owners. There appeared the hitch in the form of Chubinsky'sketch concerning the finding of freedom and independence by Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro that was regarded as the appeals to revolt. But it is not necessary to forget, that, since 1859, practically in all Russian newspapers, the articles, calling to help Slavic brothers of the Balkans to find freedom and independence with the weapon in their hands, were printed. The circumstance, that a number of Chubinsky's sketches had been written by Shevchenko's death though the authorities didn't interfere with Shevchenko's reinterment according to his will added the oil to the fire. However «the exception» was made for Chubinsky and in August, 1862 he was sent to Arkhangelsk province by the decision of Her Majesty court under police surveillance «before the special highest command». And on the thesis of historian that Chubinsky suffered because his poetic creation, it is necessary to tell, that Chubinsky's unique verse «It hasn't already died in Ukraine...» has no relation to the deportation. The future state hymn has got the popularity in 1864 when the words were published in Lviv in Austro-Hungarian and Polish traditions, where Verbitsky read them, having considered, that verses were written by Shevchenko.
It is necessary to consider the date of words writing of our state hymn dating spring 1862 (most likely, May) when Pavlo Chubinsky wrote his variant of song of Cyrilo-Methodius brotherhood students on the motive of Serbian national song «Zhye Serbie» and the words of Polish song «Sche ne znegla Polska ...» in his Kyiv apartment on Bolshaya Vasilkovskaya Street. But even the North couldn't stop such vigorous person, as Pavlo Chubinsky. A month later after arrival in Pinegu he organised coterie helping orphans and destitute children of the North, and also headed expedition on Pechora edge and Polar Urals Mountains studying. Under his initiative the expedition even to the New Land was sent (not casually, the Ukrainian polar explorers going on wintering to Antarctica, assign flowers to Chubinsky memorial plate on the building of grammar school where he studied). This is not the whole story. He studied the process of flax cultivation in province and made essential changes for improvement of quality of made manufactory, headed statistical committee of province and, besides, he was appointed as the governor and the editor-in-chief of the newspaper «Arkhangelsk provincial state paper»! Being released from police surveillance and living in Borispol, he recollected: «Seven years I worked in the North for Russian science and the government. I won't begin to list my works, but they have shown, how much I was interested in the population of the Great Russian and Finnish tribes. Besides ethnography, I have concerned all branches of people economic life, and notes on these questions served as a subject of many representations of misters of governors; and even till now it is possible to meet the government directives caused by an old representations which have arisen under my initiative in newspapers. I worked in the North tirelessly and proved my love to Russian people».
The Russian geographical society was so surprised by the volume of the performed work, that in 1869 Pavlo Platonovich was not only released from supervision, but also acquired the right to residing in any city of Russian Empire. Seven years later after the illegitimate deportation Chubinsky came back to Kyiv where under the instructions of the same Russian geographical society he headed expedition on studying of Southwest edge of Ruthenia (nowadays Kyiv, Cherkassy, Vinnitsa and Khmelnitsky regions). The result of his expedition was the work of Chubinsky «Ruthenian tribe» in which the author proved the equal circulation of Russian and Ukrainian languages in the territory of Southwest edge as the languages of the close Slavic people. In 1879 in Petersburg there were seven volumes of Chubinsky work, published in nine books under the general name «Works of ethnographical-statistical expedition to the West Russian edge». Legends, riddles, proverbs, sorcery, national diary, fairy magic tales and household, wedding ceremonies, songs household and ceremonial, national legal customs, ethnographical-statistical data, the review of the Ukrainian dialects, the description of habitation, food and clothes of Ukrainians, Jews and Poles - all that was painted very carefully, and the main thing with love to the people occupying Southwest edge. Pavlo Chubinsky wrote, that in his trips he tried not to let out from the field of his vision any part of the national life. For the given work he was awarded during his lifetime by three gold medals of the Russian, French and English geographical societies. But 1876 with its Emsky decree compelled Pavlo Chubinsky to leave Kyiv again and to get over to Petersburg. The retinue of the Emperor «didn't accept customs and traditions» of Chubinsky, that could do new problems. This time such outstanding geographers, as Semyonov-Tanshansky and Posyet acted in protection of the scientist. By the summer of 1879 Pavlo Chubinsky's health had considerably worsened and in the autumn of the same year he definitively moved to Borispol. But the scientist was not in time to exult returning to the native land in full - the stroke confined him to bed for long five years.
And on January, 16th (27), 1884, on the second day after 45 anniversary the scientist died. It seems possible to put an end on this place, but not everything is told about this amazing person. For forty five years of his life he did such things that not everyone would manage to do it for ninety years. Chubinsky's name entered not only into the history of Ukraine, his name - is the world property. Not casually, that in the far Arkhangelsk villages on flax plantings people know the scientist Chubinsky not worse, but even better, than in some Ukrainian backs. His work «the Report about flax growing, linen manufacture and linen trade in northern area» of 1869 went through not only one reprinting. Arkhangelsk journalists remember, that at Chubinsky «Provincial sheets» were read even in the capital. And namely that newspaper was one of the first in Russian Empire that released a deadly sketch of the scientist, one year later after his death in Arkhangelsk province the subscription to fund raising on monument foundation to Chubinsky in Borispol was held. Speaking about dramatic nature of Pavlo Chubinsky's destiny, it is necessary to consider that his political activity was in the sixtieth of ХІХ century when «uncontrollable liberalism» was out of the law. But the scientist found the strength to benefit to the state and people, and the main thing - he left his works for descendants. By the way, after reception of «full freedom» and returning to Continent, Pavlo Platonovich lived rather prosperious together with his family. And the statements of some laymen from the history that the state (both imperial, and Soviet) constantly slighted a family of the scientist are absolutely groundless. So, his son Mikhail was in the track of the father and became the well-known Russian criminalistand the privat-senior lecturer of the criminal law of Berlin legal academy. His works about juries reforming are actual till now in the branch. Till now in Borispol the great-granddaughter of Pavlo Platonovich lives, who one of the few constantly visits a tomb of the great-grandfather at the old Borispol Knyshevy cemetery. It is necessary to notice, that when I happen to be in Borispol, I begin the work in the capital suburb with Chubinsky's tomb visiting and its adjusting. After all it turns out in such a way- dear visitors-owners come to the centre of Borispol, assign flowers to the Pavlo Chubinsky's monument, but don't dare to come to his tomb which is only in one and a half kilometres from the centre. Whether it is frightfully from an abandonment and neglect of the cemetery, or because they speak about Pavlo Platonovich much more, than they do ... If there is no wish to honour the outstanding Russian scientist, it is necessary to honour the author of the state Hymn. But, at last, «the log jam has broken ». The repair brigades have appeared on Chubinsky's tomb. I hope, they will put it in order.
Indulgences concerning the Emsky decree appeared after the war of 1878-1879th when the Russian-Slavic army liberated Slavic brothers of Bulgaria from Turkish five-century oppression. Then even the ruling clique had a doubt concerning cultural isolation of Ruthenian people. After all the paradox turned out: for the sake of freedom, culture and language, though for Slavic brothers of the Balkans, «Russian and Ruthenia people laid down by thousands» on Shipka and near Plevna, but forbade natives even to think on the native language about the native culture.
The intolerable social-economic and political oppression dominating in Ukraine in the statement of the capitalist system, entailed mass emigration of Ukrainians. The process of statement of capitalist system in Ukraine, marked, both by "classics" and "contemporaries", was accompanied by land-poor situation and full divorce of peasantry from the soil, it didn't give possibility to the peasant «to be engaged in constant socially useful work». Hence, the searches of the free lands for agricultural cultivation became the first and the overall objective of the Ukrainian peasants. One of the directions of Ukrainians emigrant movements were Volga region and the North Caucasus. But the mainstream of Ukrainians - was the «Course on the East», i.e. in Amur River region and Seaboard region, where Ukrainians from Kyiv, Poltava and Chernigov provinces, on the boundary of the centuries created own Ukraine - «the Green Wedge», existing, by the way, until now. Today the sweet to the Ukrainian hearing names: Chernigovka, Kyivka, Romny, Borispol, Khvalynka, Khatynka, Khorol, Pryluki, Chuguevka, Nezhino, Ladynka, Monastyrische and hundreds similar names remind of those times. All of them are mostly on the territory of modern Seaside, Khabarovsk edges and Amur region. And in Ukraine the unique monument to immigrants founded in Priluki of Chernigov region reminds about it. Perhaps, there will be the day when the similar stone will be established around Odessa seaport, whence through three oceans our brothers and sisters left on the East forever ...
Thus, Ukrainians found themselves not only on the historical native land, but also far behind its limits.