The history of Ukraine-Russia in 19th century. The life, living and the culture, as the basis of Ukrainian consciousness development. Occurrence of “Prosvita" communities

Historical events of the second half of eighteenth century led to the creation of the following as often contemporay Ukrainian historians call it today the «Great Ukraine» in the borders of the Russian state. Except the former Hetman Left bank Slobodskaya Ukraine (Slobozhanschina), the Right bank with all Podneprovye, and also attached digested and occupied steppes of Ruthenian Novorossia and the lands of the former Zaporozhean Army entered into the structure of the «Great Ruthenia». All that extensive and rich territory was occupied by Ruthenians, about which the known publisher of that time Fridrih Marx said: «the population is strongly mixed with Jews, Poles, Serbs, Greeks, Bulgarians and Germans» and Jews that settled around all territory especially, in the Right bank and Podolia were the most numerous component. In administrative-political system all territory of Ruthenia, after the short-term existence of «vicegerencies» and «Ruthenia», «Novorossiysk» Governorate General, began to represent eight provinces of Russian empire - Chernigov and Poltava, as the former territory of Getmanschina; Kharkov, as former Slobodschina; Ekaterinoslavs and Kherson, as Novorossia; Kiev, Volynsk and Podolsk, as true Podneprovye and the Right bank. Besides, ethnographically, it is possible to refer the northern part of Taurian province to Ukraine. Many Ukrainians were in the boundary districts of Bessarabia. The million of Ukrainians and Ruthenians were not subject to any restrictions and were equal in the rights with all other population of Russia in every respect, filling not only all local governments, but also the all-Russian administrative apparatus, to the highest posts of Empire inclusively. The language of administrative agencies and court was Russian that didn't cause any difficulties and conflicts. The population and representatives of administration (in the majority, local natives) perfectly understood each other without any translators. While in other areas of Russia where there were not Russian population, translators at courts and establishments appeared, but in Ukraine there were any of them. In not numerous Ruthenian educational institutions the training was provided in the literary Russian, that in the beginning of the nineteenth century replaced an old "literary-mefodievsky language" which, was rather close to the Old Slavonic language, both in Russia, and Ukraine-Russia. Ukraine, which had firmly joined the life of all Russia since the nineteenth century, being as a part of Empire, lived the all-Russian life and its history was a part of the All-Russia history of that time. Together with Russia, Ruthenia with a part of Novorussia developed and protected the general Fatherland, together it was at wars, expelled enemies, experienced good, bad and inevitable in the life of each state. When the next trial of the joint brotherly life during intrusion of Frenchmen in 1812 came, Ukraine-Russia came on protection of the general native land, as well as all Russia. The former foreman and their descendants, who had turned by then in landowners and hereditary noblemen of Russian Empire vigorously, took part in formation of home guards for the aid to regular armies, as well as the Russian landowners. The people willingly went to those home guards, as there were rumours that Napoleon went in the union with Poles and Catholics, besides, the memory about the power was still fresh in national memory, as well as the memory of Mazepa and Poltava. The fact of common knowledge, that the father of the present Ukrainian literary language Ivan Kotlyarevsky was not only among initiators of volunteers formation of Poltava province, but he also headed one of the regiments. At the initiative of the Ukrainian landowners and noblemen the eight «Ruthenian Cossack regiments» which caused a stir in due course, had been generated. The fact of creation in Europe the networks of snack bars "Bistro" that is connected with impatience of the Black Sea Cossacks during their service in Paris is resulted as the historical incident ...
1                2
Cossacks in Paris and «eternal memory» to them in the form of "Bistro".
Generated in the beginning of the great struggle against Napoleonic invasion on Russia in 1812, Ruthenian Cossack Army, that together with the Ukrainian Cossack Army, exposed 19 horse regiments in the shortest time, the enviable honour to participate on the level with Don regiments tested in fights, in exclusively advanced protected Russian army and to serve «as eyes and ears» for their chiefs dropped out to them. Despite numerous hardships, the aggressive spirit of ancestors strongly lived in the souls of Ruthenia Cossacks so that "vihor-ataman" columns Platov paid attention to them and under his petition some Ruthenian regiments were included in the structure of the flying case. In the foreign campaign Ruthenian regiments incurred a decent decrease, especially in the military structure, and when after the peace conclusion in Paris, they returned home, they were expected by a new grief. The Minister of Finance of that time «incited the protest» against exemption of Ruthenian Cossacks from taxes, motivating by the treasury avarice, he also projected «to return all 450 000 of Cossack population to former position in the view of dissolution of Ruthenian regiments in homes». However, Emperor Alexander Pavlovich, admitting that Ruthenian Cossacks had the important merits before fatherland, disagreed the opinion of the Minister of Finance and special decrees addressed to Poltava and Chernigov governors, where the Ruthenian Army was located and confirmed exemption of Cossacks from any requisitions. Despite it, the government nevertheless was weighed upon tax exemption of such numerous populations and, finding an exit from the created position, it offered Poltava and Chernigov governors to promote all measures to resettlement of Ruthenian Cossacks to Caucasus. Thanking to different privileges, ten thousand Cossacks were pulled to Caucasus with their families and formed Vladikavkaz regiment in Tersky Army, and in the Kuban Army they mostly were a part of Chernomortsy, as the most native to their languages and customs. Especially that resettlement increased since 1820 when again the taxes were laid upon Ruthenia Cossacks, except Poltava regiment, to which the Cossack rank and the rights were given for ever. That is why on Caucasus there were gallant successors of ataman Sirko ...

I would like to result one more interesting fact. Long before the well-known events of today, the subject of contention between fraternal people was widly dealed in Europe. Napoleon was rather zealous in that matter. The well-known, but not favourite by a number of Ukrainian historians Andrey Diky in his «Not perverted history of Ukraine-Russia» (published, in 1961 in ... New York) testifies, that: «There were saved many data -different memoirs - about attempts of Napoleon's agents to bring decomposition among the population of Ukraine and to involve him on the side of Frenchmen. Poles, landowners of the Right bank were initiators and executors of it. But all their attempts were fruitless.
Broad masses saw the primordial enemies in the Poles-Catholics that's why they didn't want to listen to their propagation. The propagation among landowners and descendants of army foremen had also no success. The case when such agent appeared in one of the «villages» (districts) of the Left bank and addressed to the «szlyachta marshal» (so the leaders of nobility were called, though in my opinion, as the historian, marshalka - will be correct), the descendant of old foreman family with which sons he studied at the Kharkiv University. He was listened to attentively and "sympathetically" and he was told that the question should have been discussed together with neighbour-landowners who would soon arrive for that purpose. When the landowners, and all Ukrainians gathered and the Pole stated them the plan of creation of independent Ukraine by means of Frenchmen, the propagandist there and then, was severely flogged in manor house, bound and sent to the city for the police handover».

There were no additional data whether that case was individual. But the fact that it was typical for moods of the Ukrainian people and its «the higher echelon», can be confirmed with reliability as there are no any proofs anywhere that at least small groups or even units of the mullions-strong population of Ukraine-Russia, Ruthenia and Novorussia gave way to similar arrangements and took Napoleon's side as it had been done by Poles of Ruthenia, Prussia and Austro-Hungary.
The whole nineteenth century in the history of Ukraine-Russia can be possibly named as the "Golden Age" of our state. Judge by you, from the beginning of nineteenth century till the period of the «second distemper», i.e. events of 1905-1907, there was no serious conflict on the territory of those parts of Ukraine-Ruthenia which were a part of Russian empire. The fields of Patriotic War of 1812-1815 passed Ukraine though many Ukrainians among whom there was also the well- known Ivan Kotlyarevsky, went into battle «for belief, for Tsar and for Fatherland», as well as the known Decembrist mutiny of 1825 didn't concerned it. There was a Southern society with its heads indeed, but all that was only in St.-Petersburg. Thus, practically all the century long Ruthenia, to be exact its provinces, lived and prospered at the level of visible and true well-being that became a basis for creation of a new kind of political activity - education of the Ukrainian consciousness.
One of the reasons of such direction occurrence was that after the nice campaigns of Russian army from Moscow to Paris, it was accompanied by "visiting" of the educated Europe, with its culture and way of life. The Russian army won the enemy, the «haughty Napoleon Bonaparte» indeed, but, together with it, absorbed the spirit of the European democratism, that, in due course, embodied in the revolt of Decembrists.

The map of Europe of 1815
By the termination period of the «Big war» in Europe, the Russian empire closely approached to the borders of Austro-Hungary and Prussia in its western possession. The events of 1831-1833 definitively finished the division of Poland and its parts, occupied by Ukrainians entered a part of three empires. Thus, to the middle of nineteenth century, the territory of the present Ukraine was proportionally divided between possessions of three European monarchs.
However, strengthening of Russia on the European battlefield, its aspiration to the decision of a definitive question on the Black Sea straits, and also victories of the Russian army and the Black Sea Cossacks during the Balkan wars of 1825-1828th not only put on the alert all remained empires (Austro-Hungary, Prussia and the Great Britain) and republics (France and Italy, the last one, during the certain period), but caused the certain adequate actions. The cost of these actions - East or, more known, Crimean war of 1853-1856th.
Operations of East war practically didn't concerned Ruthenia provinces (the exception is bombardments from the sea of Odessa) as there passed on all «seaside front» empires - from bombardment Dyerp (present Tartu) on Baltic and the Solovetsky monastery in the north before the attempt of troops landing around Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka. By the way, the nice son of Poltava lands Zavoyko supervised the heroic defence of Kamchatka.
5  6
Vasily Stepanovich Zavoyko and the monument to him in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky 

The basic events of East war which turned in Crimean war occurred on the lands of Taurian province, to be exact, in Crimea, around Evpatoria, and then Sevastopol. And, in spite of the fact that Crimea in general, and Sevastopol in particular those years by right were considered as Novorussia and its defence, i.e. in Sevastopol, became another bright page in heroic annals of glory of fraternal people. Names of our fellow countrymen Peter Koshka, a legendary surgeon Pirogov, a scout-plastun Poteryayko and thousand others are entered by gold letters in the history of this city of glory, a city, that is worthy being worshiped, the city which created the germ of Christianity in Russia.

7          8
Despite firmness and courage of participants of the first defence in Sevastopol (it will be told later about the second defence of the Black Sea stronghold of 1941-1942nd) the war results were catastrophic for Empire, especially for Black Sea Coast as the building of military fleet in Mykolaiv stopped. But for the basic part of peasantry war results «were included into the positive», because the serfdom as the antisocial phenomenon simply "died".
On February, 19th, 1861 under Alexander's II manifesto the serfdom cancellation was proclaimed. According to the reform the personal dependence of peasants upon landowners was liquidated. Peasants acquired the right to conclude commercial transactions, to be engaged in the craft or trade freely, to pass in other social classes (petty bourgeoises, merchants), to enlist in educational institutions, to have own movable and real estate, freely dispose it and inherit under the law. They also received the civil rights. But the way from declaration of the rights and freedom to their realization was not simple at all. The peasants obliged to pay the repayment to landowners for the received allotments, which sizes, as a rule, conceded to previous plots (except Right-bank Ukraine) and which were the worst. Because of the appropriate sum of money absence they were compelled to borrow them from the state, and then to pay throughout 49 years with percent for the loan, they received. So the peasant got to dependence both on the landowner, and on the state. And redemption operations brought the big capitals to the landowners that could be used for the household handover into the market and capitalist rails. How that reminds the events of today concerning the lands shares of our grain-growers ... Alas, the history didn't learn the hardworking, but naive Ukrainian people.


February, 19th 1861 ... The end or only the beginning ...
In the first half of "golden", i.e. the nineteenth century in the Russian Ukraine (the term Ruthenia, «doesn't fall on the tongue in any way», please, forgive me, the reader) the national-cultural amateur performance and the literature in national language that had been promoted by Ivan Kotlyarevsky woke up and also started to develop.

10        11

Ivan Kotlyarevsky and his «Aeneid» became the ancestor of the present Ukrainian culture and the literature
The development went under the directions that didn't separate from the all-Russian culture, and more likely on the rapprochement ways. At the development of relatively poor and "littered" with the Polish words and concepts national Ukrainian language into the literary language, missing words and concepts were borrowed from Russian literary language, and it, naturally, led to rapprochement. Pushkin's and Zhukovsky's language, through the reconsideration by Kotlyarevsky, and, in due course, by Gogol, came to Russian lands. But not only language came to Ukraine, but also the respect to it and its people from the brother that is disparagingly represented today. Image about oppression of Ruthenians during imperial time was Trotsky's "crown" today it is «taken on arms» by the part of experts of the historical direction in the research of Ukraine-Russia relations. Whether was it so actually?                
   12            13
Pushkin and Gogol - they both loved Ukraine-Ruthenia
The rare bird will reach the middle of Dnepr ... Here they were, the well-known Dnepr thresholds
In historical understanding the destiny of Ruthenians who occupied various posts in the Russian army, to the higher command inclusively worked out well for them, as for Ukrainians there were no restrictions. Inherited, probably, from ancestors, that struggling with Poles and Tatars by generations, the propensity to military science put forward the disproportionate high percent of Ukrainians on command posts, as the Russian military historians mark till now. No less success Ukrainians had on public service in Russian empire. Already in the days of Catherine the Great (Rozumovsky can be also recollected at Elizabeth Petrovna) among the higher dignitaries of Empire we see Ukrainians Bezbordko and Troshchinsky, that brought the huge contribution to the state building. Kochubey (grandson) was the nearest adviser and the friend of Alexander I. Describing position of "competent" Ukrainians in the all-Russian administration, all the same Ivan Kotlyarevsky, by the mouth of Cossack Mikhail from the play "Moskal-Wizard" speaks: «glance in the capital, in one and another, glance in the Senate and on ministers, and then speak, whether our people suit or not!». Mikhail gave that rebuff to the soldier who told, that «Ukrainians don't suit anywhere»... And in the end of the nineteenth century Lev Tolstoy confirming Mikhail's words, told, how in Petersburg «all departments were overflowed by Ruthenians».
Hardly something similar could be seen in Austro-Hungary during the same period, though the percentage parity of Ukrainians wasn't much various.
Nevertheless, there is quite natural question if Ukrainians treated so kindly in Russian why in the second half of nineteenth century there appeared a strong national-cultural movement of Ukrainians "Prosvita"? In my opinion, it is necessary to search for the answer at the heart of the serfdom abolished "de jure", but, it is far not "de facto", especially in Ukraine. The general position of simple «people» in Ruthenia, basically, corresponded to all social Empire. The smallest part of population of Ruthenia-Ukraine lived in the cities (no less than the tenth part) while "privately owned" or serfs, "state" or liberated peasants, i.e. Cossacks were the basic part of it. Their distribution in different parts of Ukraine-Russia was various, as well as their position was different too. Position of the serfs entirely depending on arbitrariness of landowners was the heaviest. According to 1860, before serfdom liquidation, in all Ukraine there had been five millions serfs, at the general population of Ruthenia in amount of thirteen millions serfs (though in the other part of Russian Empire that parity was considerable more and reached almost ninety percent). The Right-bank part of Ukraine was the villeinage, where position of agricultural population was the hardest. The landowners there were exclusively Poles who looked at the orthodox peasants as on the slaves deprived of the civil rights and treated them respectively. Alas, the orthodox imperial government was on the guard of an existing social order and supported it in every possible way. The rights and privileges of the Russian nobility were granted to all landowners, Polish laws to which they got used still held good for a long time, and in the courts the Polish language was the core.
Such state of affairs also caused desire of Ruthenian people and parts of new Ukrainian intelligency to struggle for the culture, language, but not as opposition to all Russian, and Polish ...
To confirm the conclusions, I'm compelled to ship the reader in «the history chasm», to be exact, to suggest plunging into the beginning of nineteenth century and to return in 1804. Acts of this year became the basis for creation of national education network, to what the documents of that epoch testify.
15      16
The main educational document for Ruthenia.
With obligatory censorship

17       18

In languages - Latin, Polish, German ...
But let's return to «native places» of before last century. Recreating its own language and the culture, Ukrainian people of Ukraine-Russia didn't lose love to native Russian and native history of Russia-Ukraine. Thanks to Kotlyarevsky's merits, he was allowed (that has been already spoken about) to write and print on the native Ukrainian (Ruthenian) language. And since the third decade of the nineteenth century, in Ukraine-Ruthenia, in big quantity the literature in Ukrainian language appeared, together with it the interest to the past of Ukraine and its cultural life increased, particularly in St.Petersburg. Those steps were, in due course, supported by Narezhny, Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, Artemovsky-Gulak, Gogol, Shevchenko, Bantysh-Kamensky, "submitting" their works as in Russian, so in Ukrainian language. The talented Maksimovich and Lukashevich continued their business not only in publicism, but also in serious scientific researches on the field of Russia-Ukraine history. And, what is still interesting, that the main cultural Ukrainian center of the middle of the year before last were Kharkov and Odessa, with the Ukrainian theatre opened earlier, than in Kiev (in Odessa in 1804, in Kyiv in 1806), by the first almanacs, bulletins and collections. Everything, certainly, in Ukrainian language.
At the same time, but on the other part of Ukraine-Russia, i.e. Austro-Hungary, there were absolutely other events. Mikhail Sergeevich (the reader, don't be frightened, not Gorbachev) but Grushevsky fairly and frankly said: «In the western part of Ukraine Poland covered everything: Polish people polonised nobility, richer petty bourgeoisie and even the higher clergy (union) and the Polish eyes looked at the past and the present of the people». To that picture of the cultural life of the Ukraine-Russia part, remaining out of Russia, it is necessary to add Andrey Diky's descriptions as Austro-Hungary and polonised higher classes of Galicia related to the attempts of display of national-cultural activity of population. When the group of Galitsk citizens wanted, on the model of the Russian Ukraine, to publish the unique almanac, printed that in Budapest, and named it in 1837 "Rusalka Dnistrovaya", it was immediately confiscated, and the edition initiator- Shashkevich undergone to prosecutions.
But, again this notorious "but". Despite the jerk in national development of Ukrainians-Ruthenians, the life of the basic part of population of all Russian Empire was absolutely identical. Already in the beginning of the "Golden Age" the broad masses of agricultural population in the sense of the serfdom weight, didn't differ from the Great Russian peasants. And on the Right bank where much from the serf practice of Poland remained, serfs' position was even heavier, than in the Russia. The Cossacks of the Left bank which didn't not know the serfdom and some categories of agricultural population, who under the «Catherine's blessing» occupied Novorossia lands, represented the happy exception. The state peasants of both Russian and Ruthenian provinces equally suffered Arakcheev's severe experience of "military settlements". Russian and Ukrainians-Ruthenian equally suffered the heaviness of quarter century military service. Only in 1839 the system of manors tenancy with the state peasants who had been in exchange imposed by the monetary duty was cancelled. There were no free Cossacks on the Right bank as Poland had the time to enslave everybody. The fatal document defining the order of mass residing of Jews in empire relates the same time, arrived to Russia from Poland and Romania also, their moving, or "settled way of life" (whence there was a term «the line of the settled way of life») in certain provinces (far, not the worst), establishments of public management system, by appointment of kagalnichy etc. Thus, the picture of sufficient attention from the state machinery to the national citizens is quite foreseeable.
At the same time, concerning the development of the Ukrainian culture and language, politics developed by the sinusoidal principle, i.e. one day it went upwards and another day it faded, passing in decline. Opening of hundreds Sunday Ruthenian schools gave an impulse to the development of cultural activity in general and legalisation of Ruthenian language, in particular. But there is a rather confirmed version, that Austro-Hungary interfered in the affairs of strengthening of Ukraine-Russia cultural-national revival, to be exact, a part of Polish szlachta «approached to the emperor». Seeing the gravity of national revival in Russian Empire of Ruhtenia vector, the program on discredit as most Petersburg group of Ruthenia culture, so Cyrilo-Mefodievsky Brotherhoods was developed. And it was arranged in such a way if all initiative on revival of «ukrainianship in all its display», started from Vienna and Krakow ...
Today it's difficult to speak how serious it is, but if to combine all historical components of that time taking into account events of 1861 in Poland (the next revolt) a very picturesque picture which became one of the reasons of the of the well-known Emsky decree edition, can turn out. So, for example, «the Petersburg Committee of Literacy», in 1862 appealed to the government with the request «to permit studying on Ruthenian language in elementary schools of Ukraine», and in the books list for schools, more than half of them were Ukrainian. That offer caused a hot polemic about Ukrainian language (or as it was marked in documents of that time - Ruthenian language) in general, and about its suitability in the cultural life. Poles who, according to Grushevsky, «wished to tighten Ukrainians under the old historical Poland», from the thought of its restoration they didn't ever refuse, interfered in the «language-cultural dispute». As well as always, in the past, the «sincere care» of Poles about Ukrainians came to no good: opponents of the Ukrainian language started to spread rumors about close cooperation of Ukrainian language supporters with Poles, who lifted revolt one day. The result wasn't slow to affect in the form of Emsky decree which suspended the development of Ukrainian cultural reform. After Societies and Brotherhoods closing the number of restrictions for the Ukrainian cultural activity was entered soon: in Ukrainian language (Ruthenian) language (on official terminology - "adverb") it was authorized to print only historical monuments, and from the new literature only fictional works (verses, plays, stories, novels), thus on the all-Russian spelling, instead of rules newly-made «grammars». Ukrainian concerts, representations, reports were prohibited in general. As a result, the Ukrainian national-cultural activity stood.
It is known that in Galicia at that time Austro-Hungary, in its purposes, did the rate on the Ukrainian movement and created possibility for its development. Russian «Ukrainian nationalist» came there. Once in the seventeenth century the centre of Ukraine-Russia culture moved from Lviv on the east to Kyiv, so in the late sixties of nineteenth century, the moving in the opposite direction began. The situation when «everyone was suddenly happy» appeared. The short-sighted imperial government was very glad that «uneasy element» went abroad; Austria and its Polish component which forward-looking policy skillfully cultivated ideas of the Ukrainian separatism was happy too, understanding under it Russia tearing away from all Ukraine and its joining to Galicia in the borders of Austro-Hungary; "Ukrainian nationalists" the Russian Ukraine were also rather consent as instead of arrests and deportations for the activity they had an opportunity to develop and to continue it in Austria.
Nevertheless, the "Golden Age" gave us Shevchenko, Dragomanov, Chubinsky, Kvitka-Osnovyanenko, Kotlyarevsky, Franko, Gulak-Artemovsky, Shashkevich, Vagilevich, Golovatsky, Kostomarov, Grushevsky, Kotsyubinsky, Gogol, Chekanovsky, Kulish (Kulesha), Antonovich, and also many other glorified Ukrainians and ancestors of modern Ukrainian literature, art and culture.
        21     22 
Taras Shevchenko and his tomb


The view on Dnepr from Tarasovaya Mountain
Just there, in 1892 the students of Kharkov higher educational institutions Ivan Lipa, Nikolay Baizdrenko, Mikhail Bazkevich and the student of Kyiv university Vitaly Borovik made the travel in Kanev and on Taras Shevchenko's tomb proclaimed themselves as Tarasov's Brotherhood - the struggle organization for the statement of Shevchenko's political ideals.
fdggd           gtrgtr 
Mikhail Petrovich Dragomanov and his works
Mikhaylo Kotsyubinsky
        27 28 29 
Vladimir Antonovich, Nikolay Kostomarov, Grigory Kvitka-Osnovyaneko
That three became the "bird-three" of the Ukrainian culture, history and literature, without prejudice to achievements of other men of Ukraine-Russia creativity.
I'm compelled and simply obliged, to tell some words about the great person of Ukraine and Russia, the author of our National anthem, Pavlo Platonovich Chubinsky. In far 1862, he got in the North not by his own will, but for his thoughts and expectations about the simple Ukrainian people. But, no matter how some historians spoke, not for their verse «It hasn't already died in Ukraine». No and once again no. The history accurately testifies, that being «the national lawyer» of Pereyaslav Rada he entered the conflict with the brother of Kyiv governor Trepovoy ... All right, I will tell everything that I know.
According to the norms of any state constitution, State Arms and the Anthem are its attributes of the national sovereignty (i.e. the states). The same position is officially fixed in the Organic law of Ukraine - Constitutions. There is not a secret any more for each schoolboy that the author of the words of Ukrainian Anthem is Pavlo Chubinsky, and Mikhail Verbitsky the author of the music, accordingly. Concerning the persons of both authors, it is necessary to notice, that during the lifetime they not only didn't know about existence of each other, but also didn't assume that the honour to become the hymn authors of our countries would drop out exactly to them. The matter is that neither that, nor another, were not professionals in that branch of creativity, as Verbitsky was the church prior in the village Mlyny during his lifetime (nowadays Podkarpatsky voivodeship of Poland where he was buried), and Chubinsky was the lawyer on speciality for whom the poem «It hasn't already died in Ukraine...» was only a single instance on the field of poetry. And, besides, it is necessary to remember, that citizen of Austro-Hungary was the music's author, and the patriot of Russia was the author of verses.
Concerning personality of Pavlo Platonovich Chubinsky, biographic dictionaries of the end of nineteenth century gave enough reasoned journal concerning his life, activity and creativity that you will never tell about the present relation to Chubinsky from the country leaders. There is no sense to retell myths and fictions of some historians about dramatic destiny of Pavlo Chubinsky throughout 45-year-old period of his life. I will simply try to tell the truth about the person for whom - only the equality of each person before the Law was the meaning of the life. Well, in my opinion, it is necessary to pay more attention to the person who by soul and body, remained on the lands of Kyiv region forever. Daily some tens thousands of Kyiv citizens and visitors of our capital land at the airport of Borispol. Hundred thousand people daily pass the city of Borispol through the companion of Kyiv. And on the magnificent capital line among huge number of publicity boards you won't find anyone who would say, that in that place, around the farm Chubinka the outstanding scientist-ethnographer and geographer, journalist, business executive and polar explorer Pavlo Chubinsky was born. Only on the entrance to Borispol there is a board, reminding that in Borispol (though it is not true), Chubinsky was born. Really, Pavlo Platonovich is the author of anthem words, but his main achievement was that he was an outstanding Russian scientist of the world level.
However, everything in stages as they say. Pavlo Chubinsky was born on January, 15th (27), 1839 in the father's manor of the farm Chubinka which hasn't remained till nowadays, except the old grove. The present settlement Chubinskoe had no relation to the father's manor- the settlement, is just opposite to former manor. His childhood passed in the parents' house where he received the home education, and then in Pereyaslav district school. Later - the Second Kyiv grammar school (the grammar school building remained, its modern address is parkway Shevchenko, 18) which Pavlo graduated from with a silver medal. By the way, all Kyiv grammar schools on open spaces of Russian Empire were quoted at the high enough level to what the list of the outstanding scientists who passed through the hearths of Kyiv alma-mothers testifies. As the most perspective student, Pavlo was sent in the Petersburg University, where he graduated the faculty of law. There came 1861, the time of liberal reforms of autocracy on the field of defeat in Crimean (East) war. Not indifferent to the peasants' destiny of his native Pereyaslav district (for that time Borispol was a town and was a part of the given district), Pavlo left the capital of Empire and arrived on the constant place of service to Kyiv, at first he was the teacher of law in a female grammar school, and then in the appellate court of Kyiv province. By all his activity on the post of the judicial police officer, he achieved legality in the rights for all inhabitants of the district that, for the clear reasons, the "owner" of district Feodor Trepovoy, the brother of the Kiev governor, didn't like. At that time in Kyiv the work of the judicial police officer Chubinsky «About rake-off, as the legal bribery from the district authorities» resulted practically all landowners, in the "active" furiousness. It also should be added that in 1861 the third revolt in Poland and, considering the fact that in the districts of Kyiv province there lived many Poles who also went to the fair judicial police officer for the justice, the relation to Chubinsky, from retinue of the governor, wasn't good. There were charges against Pavlo Chubinsky that he appealed peasants to live as good and free, as landowners and officials and recommended to stop paying «rake-offs» to the owners. There appeared the hitch in the form of Chubinsky'sketch concerning the finding of freedom and independence by Bulgaria, Serbia and Montenegro that was regarded as the appeals to revolt. But it is not necessary to forget, that, since 1859, practically in all Russian newspapers, the articles, calling to help Slavic brothers of the Balkans to find freedom and independence with the weapon in their hands, were printed. The circumstance, that a number of Chubinsky's sketches had been written by Shevchenko's death though the authorities didn't interfere with Shevchenko's reinterment according to his will added the oil to the fire. However «the exception» was made for Chubinsky and in August, 1862 he was sent to Arkhangelsk province by the decision of Her Majesty court under police surveillance «before the special highest command». And on the thesis of historian that Chubinsky suffered because his poetic creation, it is necessary to tell, that Chubinsky's unique verse «It hasn't already died in Ukraine...» has no relation to the deportation. The future state hymn has got the popularity in 1864 when the words were published in Lviv in Austro-Hungarian and Polish traditions, where Verbitsky read them, having considered, that verses were written by Shevchenko.
It is necessary to consider the date of words writing of our state hymn dating spring 1862 (most likely, May) when Pavlo Chubinsky wrote his variant of song of Cyrilo-Methodius brotherhood students on the motive of Serbian national song «Zhye Serbie» and the words of Polish song «Sche ne znegla Polska ...» in his Kyiv apartment on Bolshaya Vasilkovskaya Street. But even the North couldn't stop such vigorous person, as Pavlo Chubinsky. A month later after arrival in Pinegu he organised coterie helping orphans and destitute children of the North, and also headed expedition on Pechora edge and Polar Urals Mountains studying. Under his initiative the expedition even to the New Land was sent (not casually, the Ukrainian polar explorers going on wintering to Antarctica, assign flowers to Chubinsky memorial plate on the building of grammar school where he studied). This is not the whole story. He studied the process of flax cultivation in province and made essential changes for improvement of quality of made manufactory, headed statistical committee of province and, besides, he was appointed as the governor and the editor-in-chief of the newspaper «Arkhangelsk provincial state paper»! Being released from police surveillance and living in Borispol, he recollected: «Seven years I worked in the North for Russian science and the government. I won't begin to list my works, but they have shown, how much I was interested in the population of the Great Russian and Finnish tribes. Besides ethnography, I have concerned all branches of people economic life, and notes on these questions served as a subject of many representations of misters of governors; and even till now it is possible to meet the government directives caused by an old representations which have arisen under my initiative in newspapers. I worked in the North tirelessly and proved my love to Russian people».
The Russian geographical society was so surprised by the volume of the performed work, that in 1869 Pavlo Platonovich was not only released from supervision, but also acquired the right to residing in any city of Russian Empire. Seven years later after the illegitimate deportation Chubinsky came back to Kyiv where under the instructions of the same Russian geographical society he headed expedition on studying of Southwest edge of Ruthenia (nowadays Kyiv, Cherkassy, Vinnitsa and Khmelnitsky regions). The result of his expedition was the work of Chubinsky «Ruthenian tribe» in which the author proved the equal circulation of Russian and Ukrainian languages in the territory of Southwest edge as the languages of the close Slavic people. In 1879 in Petersburg there were seven volumes of Chubinsky work, published in nine books under the general name «Works of ethnographical-statistical expedition to the West Russian edge». Legends, riddles, proverbs, sorcery, national diary, fairy magic tales and household, wedding ceremonies, songs household and ceremonial, national legal customs, ethnographical-statistical data, the review of the Ukrainian dialects, the description of habitation, food and clothes of Ukrainians, Jews and Poles - all that was painted very carefully, and the main thing with love to the people occupying Southwest edge. Pavlo Chubinsky wrote, that in his trips he tried not to let out from the field of his vision any part of the national life. For the given work he was awarded during his lifetime by three gold medals of the Russian, French and English geographical societies. But 1876 with its Emsky decree compelled Pavlo Chubinsky to leave Kyiv again and to get over to Petersburg. The retinue of the Emperor «didn't accept customs and traditions» of Chubinsky, that could do new problems. This time such outstanding geographers, as Semyonov-Tanshansky and Posyet acted in protection of the scientist. By the summer of 1879 Pavlo Chubinsky's health had considerably worsened and in the autumn of the same year he definitively moved to Borispol. But the scientist was not in time to exult returning to the native land in full - the stroke confined him to bed for long five years.
And on January, 16th (27), 1884, on the second day after 45 anniversary the scientist died. It seems possible to put an end on this place, but not everything is told about this amazing person. For forty five years of his life he did such things that not everyone would manage to do it for ninety years. Chubinsky's name entered not only into the history of Ukraine, his name - is the world property. Not casually, that in the far Arkhangelsk villages on flax plantings people know the scientist Chubinsky not worse, but even better, than in some Ukrainian backs. His work «the Report about flax growing, linen manufacture and linen trade in northern area» of 1869 went through not only one reprinting. Arkhangelsk journalists remember, that at Chubinsky «Provincial sheets» were read even in the capital. And namely that newspaper was one of the first in Russian Empire that released a deadly sketch of the scientist, one year later after his death in Arkhangelsk province the subscription to fund raising on monument foundation to Chubinsky in Borispol was held. Speaking about dramatic nature of Pavlo Chubinsky's destiny, it is necessary to consider that his political activity was in the sixtieth of ХІХ century when «uncontrollable liberalism» was out of the law. But the scientist found the strength to benefit to the state and people, and the main thing - he left his works for descendants. By the way, after reception of «full freedom» and returning to Continent, Pavlo Platonovich lived rather prosperious together with his family. And the statements of some laymen from the history that the state (both imperial, and Soviet) constantly slighted a family of the scientist are absolutely groundless. So, his son Mikhail was in the track of the father and became the well-known Russian criminalistand the privat-senior lecturer of the criminal law of Berlin legal academy. His works about juries reforming are actual till now in the branch. Till now in Borispol the great-granddaughter of Pavlo Platonovich lives, who one of the few constantly visits a tomb of the great-grandfather at the old Borispol Knyshevy cemetery. It is necessary to notice, that when I happen to be in Borispol, I begin the work in the capital suburb with Chubinsky's tomb visiting and its adjusting. After all it turns out in such a way- dear visitors-owners come to the centre of Borispol, assign flowers to the Pavlo Chubinsky's monument, but don't dare to come to his tomb which is only in one and a half kilometres from the centre. Whether it is frightfully from an abandonment and neglect of the cemetery, or because they speak about Pavlo Platonovich much more, than they do ... If there is no wish to honour the outstanding Russian scientist, it is necessary to honour the author of the state Hymn. But, at last, «the log jam has broken ». The repair brigades have appeared on Chubinsky's tomb. I hope, they will put it in order.

And these are the works of Chubinsky, which are learnt by Russian flax growers
32       33
The monument to Pavlo Platonovich in the centre of Borispol where the guests of honour come. And in two kilometers there is his tomb. I hope that soon it will be arranged well.
34           35                   
Well I have no trouble to clean the tomb of the well-known scientist, polar explorer, the ethnographer, flax grower, geologist and geographer who by some quirk of fate was the author of our national Anthem. After all that's what is written on his tomb «I'm reviving as after the death» ...
This newspaper which editor he was by many years testifies how Chubinsky was respected in North Russian
The Emsky decree, as one would expect, "impaired" not only truly Ruthenian-Russian relations, but also gave a new impulse to the Ukrainian creativity. For that reason, on the first year of the introduction on a throne, i.e. in 1881 new Russian tsar Alexander III decided to make some changes concerning an ethnic question in Ukraine. The Ministry of Internal Affairs dispatched "explanation" of the Emsky decree to all provinces of Ukraine. The dictionaries were also added to the works of fiction and historical documents earlier resolved for printing in the Ukrainian language, but printing by Russian alphabet with Ruthenian transcriptions was required. The decree didn't lose its force. New secret orders against the Ukrainian language came from time to time. In 1892 the special order «with a view of especially state affairs» reminded censors of inadmissibility of the permission to print the Ukrainian translation of any Russian work. In 1894 from Austro-Hungary there was the "reminder" on an interdiction of Ukrainian books import and from 1895, irrespective of the maintenance, it was forbidden to print Ukrainian juvenile books for reading.
          39                                40 
Even communities as the organizations of Ukrainian intelligency in the second half of nineteenth century in Pridneprovsky Ukraine, spending the national-cultural and political activity, occurred «out of the law». The first community was created on the boundary of 1860-1861 at the initiative of participants of hlopoman coterie in which structure entered Antonovich, Chubinsky and others... The Emsky decree forbade the edition of any books, written in Ukrainian language, and also forbade the import of the Ukrainian literature from abroad. The Southwest branch of the Russian geographical society was closed, the newspaper «Kyiv telegraph» - the basic publication of Kyiv community which renewed only nowadays, stopped its release.
Indulgences concerning the Emsky decree appeared after the war of 1878-1879th when the Russian-Slavic army liberated Slavic brothers of Bulgaria from Turkish five-century oppression. Then even the ruling clique had a doubt concerning cultural isolation of Ruthenian people. After all the paradox turned out: for the sake of freedom, culture and language, though for Slavic brothers of the Balkans, «Russian and Ruthenia people laid down by thousands» on Shipka and near Plevna, but forbade natives even to think on the native language about the native culture.
41 42 
They spilled blood for the Bulgarian language and culture on Shipka, and forgot about their native language of Ukraine-Russia
Consequently, and unequivocally it is necessary to notice, that the national policy of the imperial government in the second half of the century before last, despite "golden" for Ukraine-Russia, remained reactionary as a whole, in particular anti-Ukrainian, as inherently, so on the orientation. However, contrary to the political reaction, prosecutions, interdictions and deportations in the Ukrainian society, the new ideas, first of all in the environment of the advanced intelligency, dreaming of cultural liberation of the Ukrainian nation grew ripe. Time inevitably approached Ukraine to the fatal twentieth century. But yet not everything is told about the life of Ukrainians in the homeland and behind its limits.
The intolerable social-economic and political oppression dominating in Ukraine in the statement of the capitalist system, entailed mass emigration of Ukrainians. The process of statement of capitalist system in Ukraine, marked, both by "classics" and "contemporaries", was accompanied by land-poor situation and full divorce of peasantry from the soil, it didn't give possibility to the peasant «to be engaged in constant socially useful work». Hence, the searches of the free lands for agricultural cultivation became the first and the overall objective of the Ukrainian peasants. One of the directions of Ukrainians emigrant movements were Volga region and the North Caucasus. But the mainstream of Ukrainians - was the «Course on the East», i.e. in Amur River region and Seaboard region, where Ukrainians from Kyiv, Poltava and Chernigov provinces, on the boundary of the centuries created own Ukraine - «the Green Wedge», existing, by the way, until now. Today the sweet to the Ukrainian hearing names: Chernigovka, Kyivka, Romny, Borispol, Khvalynka, Khatynka, Khorol, Pryluki, Chuguevka, Nezhino, Ladynka, Monastyrische and hundreds similar names remind of those times. All of them are mostly on the territory of modern Seaside, Khabarovsk edges and Amur region. And in Ukraine the unique monument to immigrants founded in Priluki of Chernigov region reminds about it. Perhaps, there will be the day when the similar stone will be established around Odessa seaport, whence through three oceans our brothers and sisters left on the East forever ...
And if resettlement to the East, i.e. the Far East was well thought by the governmental program of the imperial state among which initiators were Ignatyev, Stolypin, Durnovo and Vitte, many Ukrainians appeared abroad by the bad will. It is a question of Austro-Hungary Ukrainians who emigrated in NАUS forever (so, the North American United States were called as the USA of those years) Canada, Brazil, Argentina. Zakarpatye and Ciscarpathian region Ukrainians made the considerable quantity among all Ukrainian immigrant community in the New World till the end of nineteenth century.
Thus, Ukrainians found themselves not only on the historical native land, but also far behind its limits.
Обращаем Ваше внимание, что мнение редакции портала UKRAINE-IN может не совпадать с мнением авторов. На портале размещены статьи историков из разных стран, которые могут по-разному интерпретировать события. Также просим Вас воздержаться от агрессивных и нецензурных комментариев.
blog comments powered by Disqus

All articles