Ukraine in the period of the World War II (from September, 1st of 1939 to September, 2nd of 1945)

As everyone, interested in the development of the world history, knows, the most terrible time in the world community life was in the years of the Second World War which had been proceeded for six years and one day. Though, according to the management assurances of the first socialist state, this year, promised to be peaceful ...
С новым годом
Some historians consider the date of the war beginning on 1th of September from the moment of Germany and Slovakia attack to Poland, another - 3rd September, since that moment as Great Britain and France on diplomatic channels declared the war to the aggressor, i.e. Germany. Well, the third ones consider the date of the Second World War beginning as 1932 year, i.e. since that moment as Japan had occupied the Chinese Manchuria. But, anyway, the date of 1th September, 1939 became the history as the date of the most terrible drama of the mankind. Thousands and ten thousand scientific works were written on this theme, whether all of them have been opened till now. The question is also in the place of Ukraine and its population, both in the initial stage, so at the moment of its end.                                           
Так немецкие войска проходили в Польшу

In such a way the German armies passed to Poland

А так – советские…

And Soviet armies in that way ...

Seven decades passed since the day, when at first Europe, and then the whole world, was captured by the slaughter-house flame. Today under this theme the seminars, debates, symposiums, political summits take place on the highest level on which Poland is declared as the country, which suffered from aggression, as well as Germany - is the aggressor accordingly. From the historical-political aspect, that is actually so, but, the notorious "but" brings very essential corrective amendments in this aspect. At least, because more than 150 thousand thoroughbred Ukrainians, inhabitants of east voivodeship of Poland, presented on the modern map, as Volynsk, Rovno, Lvov, Ternopol and Ivano-Frankovsk regions acted in the arms against the German aggressor. Thus, September, 1st passed through the hearts, souls, and even bodies of thousand Ukrainians who acted on opposition to the aggressor. Subsequently, the fact of Ukrainians participation in the first months of the war as a part of the Second Polish Lithuanian Commonwealth Army had been recognized by Germany, Soviet Union, France with the Great Britain, and the USA, because the fact of participation of «east suburbs» Ukrainians of Poland - is conclusive and proved thing.
On September, 17th of all the same 1939, on the one hand, definitively stopped the existence of the Polish state and on the other hand- gave the impulse to reunion of the West Ukrainian lands to the uniform Ukraine with the people occupying it. From the point of view of international law, the USSR didn't really declare the war on Poland, but only advised the ambassador of Poland in Moscow that taking into account the political situation and the termination of the state structures of Poland activity, the army of WPRА (Workers' and Peasants' Red Army) pass the western border for the purpose of Belarus and Ukrainian population protection of the east areas of the former Poland and the capture of their property under protection. So or nearly so, there was in the note which the assistant of National Commissioner of External Affairs Potemkin tried to hand over to the Polish ambassador (why tried, because the Polish ambassador refused to do it without the consent of Warsaw, and the note had been already brought directly to the building of embassy).
И если исходить из реалий
And if to proceed from the realities of the seventy-year remoteness it turns out that some Ukrainians in arms entered the war on September, 1st (as on Vesterplyatte or on Hele), and others - on 17th, having entered the opposition with the Polish frontier guards, as the most efficient parts. But, thus it is necessary to notice the fact that, percentage parity of Ukrainians as a part of the Polish armies, standing on the boundary of eastern frontier cover was very little, in comparison with the dispositions in the West. To some extent, it was justified by the actions of the Polish command - nobody would like to have «the fifth column» by experience of Spain. For that reason, in the first months of the war there was no fratricidal war between Ukrainians of eastern and western part.
Жители Львова приветствуют факт принятия западно-украинских земель в состав СССР 

Lvov inhabitants welcome the fact of the West Ukrainian lands acceptance in the structure of the USSR

On September, 28th, of all the same 1939, the well-known «Pact of Molotov-Ribbentrop» appeared in the text of the Germany-Soviet contract «About friendship and border between the USSR and Germany».

О дружбе и границе между СССР и Германией».
And during the period from November, 1 till November, 2nd on the basis of People's National Meeting decisions of the Western Belarus in Bialystok and the Western Ukraine in Lvov (as it is specified in the information messages of that time) the given territories were accepted by the decisions of the Supreme body of USSR in the structure of BSSR and USSR, accordingly.
On the map of the Soviet Union there were new regions in structure of USSR: Volynsk, Rovno, Lvov, Drogobychsky (nowadays mostly in Lvov, smaller in Ternopol and Ivano-Frankovsk region), Stanislavsky (nowadays Ivano-Frankovsk) and Tarnopolsky region. It is necessary not to forget that except the well-known regions, Kamenets-Podolsk region and Moldavian ASSR for that period were in the administrative-political system of Ukraine.

Карта территории Украины до 17 сентября 1939-го
The map of the territory of Ukraine till September 17th, 1939
The quantity of the lost Ukrainians as a part of the Polish armies resisting to Germans, as the Joint Staff of Polish Army did not conduct such registration data. But it is known for certain (according to the the given bodies of the Red Army of Workers and Peasants) that in the course of "liberating campaign» in the fights with the Polish frontier guards and army divisions the Soviet armies lost 1139 commanders and Red Army men, among them - 312 were Ukrainians. This data is exact, as the account of losses in the Red Army of Workers and Peasants, including the national sign, was extremely exact. And if to take for a basis the participation of Red Army of Workers and Peasants in the «liberating campaign» as the Second World War component it is possible to assert that there were the first losses of Ukrainians on the territory of modern Ukraine.
At the same time, it is necessary to recognise that voluntary joining of the West Ukrainian and West Belarus lands as it had been officially presented, considerably increased not only the territorial sizes, but also increased the number of all population of two republics - modern Ukraine and Belarus.
Till now the historians in the West, and in the East argue about what the Soviet-Finnish war is considered as(sometimes there is a name, as the Soviet-Finnish war): wether the military conflict of the two separate countries of the World War II all period or the independent war, as the Great Patriotic War. But, if to start with chronology of its passage (from November, 30th of 1939 till March, 13th of 1940) and the structure of participants (more than 845 thousand Soviet armies and 300 thousand of Finnish participants) it was the real 105 day war, in more than eight-ten thousand were lost and went missing. In spite of the fact that operations passed far from the Ukrainian lands(from northern coast of Baltic sea to the Polar region) there were many Ukrainians and inhabitants of Ukraine among the dead people (especially it concerns the division of the future hero of Kyiv defence, the general Kirponos M.P). According to the total losses reports of the Soviet armies during that war,there were more than fourteen thousand of the military men called from the territory of USSR (without new, the so-called western territories) among the victims and missing persons.
Памятник воинам, погибшим на «финской войне».  
The monument to the soldiers who were lost in the «Finnish war»
Кто и как был бит, показало время… 
Who and how they were killed, the time showed...
The joining of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the USSR can be considered as one more stage or the front episode of the World War II (the given operation in various sources is named as Bessarabsky operation, Bessarabsky campaign, Prutsky campaign of 1940, and also the joining of Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, on the analogy to the «Polish campaign» of Germany against Poland). Actually, from the point of view of military-political aspect it was not the military-political operation, but the transfer of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina by Romania to the USSR in 1940. The Soviet side planned it as the occurrence-intrusion of Worker's and Peasant's Red Army armies to Romania, but, in some hours before the beginning of operation, the king of Romania Karol II, accepted categorical note of People's Commissariat of External Affairs of the USSR and transferred Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina at the active pressure of Germany.
Жители Кишинева приветствуют воинов-освободителей 

Kishinev inhabitants greet soldiers-liberators

Operation on the territory occupation by the Soviet armies lasted for only six days. Despite assurances of some historians of the Soviet period that the campaign and liberation were bloodless, the summary data of that body of acquisition testifies that the Soviet party lost three persons who had been killed and a five missing persons. Two of the aggregate number of losses - were Ukrainians.
Часть территории Молдавии плавно отделилась от Украины 
 The part of Moldova territory smoothly separated from Ukraine
Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic appeared on the map of the USSR in such a way (in the structure of the USSR, without the prefix Independent), besides, Chernovitsky and Akkermansky regions were added to the territory of Ukraine.
The period of November 1939- June 22nd, 1941, can be considered the period of peace as a whole, except that on the new boundaries of USSR border and Ukraine accordingly, there were skirmishes, both between the frontier guards of the adjacent parties, and with the floor guerrilla connections of Craiova Army of the former Polish state.
June, 22nd 1941 became not only the next geographical front of the World War II, which received the definition, as the East front, but also the separate kind of the fighting activity, named as the Great Patriotic War. If to speak about the first operations on the Great Patriotic War fronts, i.e. from Barentsev to Black the seas, it is necessary to admit that the fights on the Ukrainian lands were the most scale on the number of armies and set of the technics and arms. As the evidence there is the fact that the Western front (the former special Western military district) territorially providing all Belarus had been crushed by defence for two weeks, and the capital of Belarus - Minsk, in the evening on June, 28th was grasped by the opponent (and actually left by the Soviet command). The same thing, but in the largest time interval, occurred in Baltics.
Concerning Ukraine, the situation was absolutely different then. Despite the plans of Germany in the shortest terms to seize Ukraine as industrially developed region with an agrarian source, the fights on the western boundaries of sovereign country, were hardened and long. As the evidence of that fact were Lvov-Chernovitsky, Kyiv and Donbas-Rostov strategic defensive operations. The armies of Kyiv and Odessa special military districts, which had turned since the beginning of the wars in the Western and Southern fronts, not only constrained the impact of the opponent, but also put it to flight on the certain territories (basically it was on the boundary of Izmail - Reni, against the Romanian armies). By the autumn 1941 the fights in Ukraine and especially in Kyiv defence became not only the symbol of armies and home guards firmness, but also an original change in negotiations with the Great Britain about creation of the uniform block of Union States in the struggle against the world aggression. It is necessary to remember that under the Great Britain insisting the Soviet Union already the same on July, 4th was compelled to recognize Poland, as the state and also the Polish government in emigration having been subjected to aggressions.
Киевская стратегическая оборонительная операция
Kyiv strategic defensive operation
In July-September, 1941 the fierce battles were developed on the southern "wing" of the Soviet-German front. The fights lasting without operative pauses for two and a half month, were held on the huge territory: from north to the south of Ukraine from Polesye to the Black and Azov seas and from the West to the East - from Sarn, Berdichev, Kamenets-Podolsk, the bottom current of Prut and the mouth of Danube to Shostka, Poltava, Dnepropetrovsk, Melitopol, and also the Crimean isthmuses. Extent of the battle-front fluctuated from 1200 kilometers in July to 800 kilometers in September. The depth of the front which today can be named as "Ukrainian" made from 500 to 600 kilometers. The basic battles were developed there, as well as on the central Smolensk direction.
Four cities of Ukraine became the real bastions of immortality and symbols of courage and firmness. Kyiv - is the mother of Russian cities. Its defence was necessary, from the military-economic and political point of view. Leningrad completely occupied Belarus, Baltics, the right-bank Ukraine and the enemy under the walls of «revolution cradle». New British allies didn't hasten with the active help rendering and waited for the decision of Kyiv and Ukraine destiny. Today it's already known that in the interests of strategic defence and preservation of the Southwest front parts the Joint Staff led by G.K. Zhukov asked for the permission to leave Kyiv. The answer is known - to defend Kyiv. During the same time the German army had the opposite tasks: to seize Kyiv, to grasp bases on the east coast of Dnepr and by the left front wing to make deep covering maneuver through Belaya Tserkov towards the southeast direction, and then to surround, dismember and destroy the Soviet armies in the Right-bank Ukraine by their own strength. In the second half of July- first half of August, the solving events were developed in Kyiv direction in the strip of the Southwest front. The Soviet command took the urgent measures for the threat elimination, which hung over the capital of Ukraine. But the forces and means were already insufficient. By September, 17th it was clear that Kyiv should be left. And that occurred not as the organized deviation, but as one of the terrible war tragedies. General M.P.Kirponos ordering the front, and his staff lost management over the armies after attempts to break through the noose. Dismembered on groups, the armies were in the heavy struggle in the noose more than weeks. Many of them made the way through enemy barriers, but ten thousand fighters and commanders were lost in unequal fights with the enemy, and one and a half hundred thousand - were taken prisoner. The small river Trubezh which became the border-watershed between opponents was red. The unknown poet, apparently being under the impression of the well-known work «Trubezh roars», wrote such lines as- «Trubezh roars about our destruction ...».
На подступах к Киеву 
On approaches to Kyiv
Defence of Kyiv proceeded 71 day. But those days allowed the Rate to find new forces on the East of the country and to collect armies' skeleton for the first defeat of German armies near Moscow. Events of those days till now remind skeletons of old pillboxes, anonymous communal graves, monuments on them, and established medal «For Kyiv defence». After Kyiv abandonment more than two-year evacuation followed, which tragedy symbol today is Babi Yar ... However the well-known «death match» took place on June, 22nd 1942.

Бабий Яр – трагедий Киева, Европы и мира…

Бабий Яр – трагедий Киева, Европы и мира…

Бабий Яр – трагедий Киева, Европы и мира…


Бабий Яр – трагедий Киева, Европы и мира…

Бабий Яр – трагедий Киева, Европы и мира…

Babi Yar - the tragedy of Kyiv, Europe and the whole world ...

на Южном фронте, свою лепту в героическую летопись внесла «жемчужина у моря»

на Южном фронте, свою лепту в героическую летопись внесла «жемчужина у моря»

на Южном фронте, свою лепту в героическую летопись внесла «жемчужина у моря»

на Южном фронте, свою лепту в героическую летопись внесла «жемчужина у моря»  

On the Southern front «the pearl at the sea» - the capital of acacias and plane trees Odessa made contribution to the heroic annals practically at the same time.
Сразу же после нападения
After Germany attack on the USSR, Romania joined it on the southern flank of the front. However, they didn't hasten to begin the active actions. But after the rupture of the Southern front and exit of German armies to Ochakov, Romanians showed activity not only in Bessarabia, but already in Odessa. As a result in August, 1941 Odessa as the large southern city and the port of USSR was cut off from the other territory of the country. The rate as in the relation of Kyiv strictly forbade evacuation of the Soviet armies from Odessa to Crimea and demanded to protect the city up to the last soldier. Then and there, in August, 1941, the Black Sea marines were born. But the city was in blockade, which was possible to break through only by the sea. But it was not the trouble yet. The problem for the city at the sea came from the water, to be more exact - from its absence. If Leningrad victims of siege speak tremblingly about foodstuffs cards, the ancient inhabitant of Odessa will remember the card on water for sure ... For rescue of townsmen and restoration of water supply the command of the Black Sea fleet urgently developed the plan of the combined landing operation which became the history as Grigorevsky landing (under the name of Grigorevka settlement).
Морская пехота под Одессой – «чувство юмора для одесситов всегда было выше чувства ответственности», так гласит фольклор… 
The marines near Odessa - «the sense of humour for Odessa inhabitants was always above the sense of responsibility» so the folklore says ...

А за оборону Одессы, также была учреждена медаль. 

Also the medal for Odessa defence was established

А за оборону Одессы, также была учреждена медаль. 
Сегодня эта «карточка одессита на воду» равна по значимости 
Today this «card on water of Odessa inhabitant » is equal on the importance to the card of the Leningrad siege victim ...

Сегодня эта «карточка одессита на воду» равна по значимости     Сегодня эта «карточка одессита на воду» равна по значимости

After Odessa abandonment the Soviet armies with fights departed to the East, but in the orderly manner. Kharkov was delivered up; Donetsk was left, and the threat hung over Caucasus. At that particular time on the land of the ancient Chersonese the new defence of Sevastopol took place, simultaneously becoming the symbol of firmness and the tragedy synonym.


The second defence of Sevastopol, the city of glory and worship began on October 30th, 1941. Two storms during the autumn of 41st - summer of 42nd were beaten off. But there had been neither efforts, nor means on the tried storm. In the press and scientific messages there wasn't practically told about the last days of the city defence and tragedy on Chersonese around 35th coastal battery before the beginning of 90th years.

No comments. The author, i.e. me - is in the middle ...
I'd rather not brag, but I'm one of those two authors, who wrote the trilogy of «Heroes Chersonese», consisting of three books: «Treasured rock of immortality, memory and grief», «Sevastopol: unapproachable and unsubdued» «I'm combating ... for truth ». For that reason, as the historian-researcher, I will dare to tell that all period of Sevastopol defence was the brightest page of the world military art history, but its the end - is the shame and tragedy. As the result of Sevastopol defensive area «leaving on continent» and absence of the adjusted evacuation system as it was in Odessa, almost all armies of the area which concentrated on the bandbox near the «Treasured rock» or were taken prisoner, had been lost. Those and others were ten thousand. Those, who survived after defenders of the «Black Sea stronghold» fairly told to the former and naval commanders: «We hadn't been betrayed, but also hadn't been rescued »... In the heroic defence of Sevastopol one more episode appeared, which leading role was played by one more Crimean city - ancient Kerch. At first, it was carrying out of Kerch-Theodosia landing operation on December, 26th 1941. Then, as the defeat of Crimean front, it was unorganized deviation on Tamansky peninsula, destruction of thousand and capture of tens thousand Soviet soldiers and, finally, as firmness of Adzhimushkaya garrison and inhabitants of Kerch in May - July of 1942.
The landing loading on the ships of the Black Sea fleet
And its landing
And that is rather rare photo of avialanding loading which was thrown out in the area of Ak-Monai
But it was early to put the end in the role and place of Ukrainian people in the Second World War, as there had been still the fights in Slovakia, Czechia, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Yugoslavia, and Germany - in the den. But also in the Far East the blood was spilt and the life of more than twelve thousands was given. Ukrainians or natives from its territories made the second part among the quantity of victims. The results of that war were terrible. Only the human losses of the arrested personnel staff (i.e. military men) of Workers' and Peasant's Red Army and People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs made more than eight and a half millions people, and taking into account the victims in the camps and actually missing people this number increases to eleven millions. It is necessary to add citizens that were lost from bombardments, hunger, executions and other factors accompanying war to this terrible number, and we will receive that terrible «death diagramme» which from the ten millions in 1946 smoothly outgrew to twenty seven in 1985 ... That was Ukraine and its people. It's necessary to note the fact that the record of victims in Workers' and Peasant's Red Army and People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs was kept not only by the national sign, but also by the place of call-out. Proceeding from it, today it is possible to tell with the full confidence that the quantity of Ukrainian soldiers that were lost in the days of World War II (taking into account the Great Patriotic War, Polish campaign, Soviet-Finnish war and Bessarabia liberation in 1940), with the losses of «noncombat character» made 3925568 people. That number was confirmed in 1995. But, the question is about the losses in the field of fight, «without binding» to the victims of war who were the citizens of Kyiv, Odessa, Yalta, Berdichev, Berdyansk (then Osipenko) and other cities, who were shot only by the national sign. And after all there were still people (personnel and individualities, instead of «statistical material») the given lives in the underground, guerrilla movement and on the forced hard labour. Their number is still unknown, but, taking into account the first post-war population census the total number decreased to twenty millions. Concerning Ukraine, with the account of Crimea and Zakarpatye, it is possible to tell with 75 % confidence that the general losses of Ukrainian citizens on the war fronts, in captivity, from executions and hunger and in slavery made more than five millions people. Why exactly that number and why not so reasoned percent? The matter is that after the defined «century disclosings», especially after August of 1991, the quantity of those, who didn't come from compulsory slavery in Germany or those, who remained in the countries of Western Europe "by their own will" with the implied sense «they had the fault» ... among "missing people" had been deduced.
With positions of today's realities, with the addition of prefixes «humanism - above all» it is very difficult to give an estimation to those who made the feat in the field of fight and remained anonymous or to those who «having shown cowardice» went on cooperation with enslavers, who acted against their conscience. But, one thing is obvious the Second World War with all its stages in full amount walked as the terrible asphalt compactor through the all territory of Ukraine, and through its people, accordingly.
The very strong guerrilla movement of the most different directions, currents and subordination, i.e. from the soldiers connected in groups and guerrilla to every possible formations, including the prefix of the "band formation", consisting of deserters and objectors,were another feature of the World War II which walked as the terrible asphalt compactor through the all territory of Ukraine. Nevertheless, it is necessary to admit that guerrilla movement was not only approved by the Rate, but also organised at the level of the republican management. Ukrainian staff of guerrilla movement led by Demian Korotchenko, in which structure the well-known yesterday, but forgotten today, Kovpak, Fedorov, Saburov, Popudrenko connections etc. were as an example. It is insulting that the number of some modern historians, reckon the soldiers of Ukrainan Rebel Army (UPA) in the soldiers, equal to the participants of guerrilla movement, who a priori were not good in their status and amount of performed task, that is definitively and irrevocably recognised in the bill of indictment of the Nuremberg process. In addition, it is necessary not to forget about the number of the guerrilla associations, operations conducted by them (one «Rail war» worths much) and rather inconsistent successes of of Ukrainan Rebel Army (UPA) soldiers, not being the armed association, according to the International status of war participants. The medal to the «Guerrilla of Patriotic war» of two degrees, confirmed by the Presidium of the Supreme body of USSR, is the acknowledgement to that (however, the medals of such status were in Poland, France, Belgium, Yugoslavia, and in Greece).
Not only yesterday's fighters and commanders went in guerrillas ...
Everyone went to guerrilla groups - from old to young ones, from grandfather to the granddaughter
The wave of operations all over Ukraine spread not only on the proximate battles fields during strategic defensive and offensive operations, but also on its open spaces - «from Putivl to Carpathians» as it was defined in the famous Sidor Kovpak's book. Especially it is necessary to note the last district, after all there was one more front in Carpathians, its foothills and onVolhynia, which had been ignored by the Soviet historians for long time. It is the question of Ukrainian Rebel Army (UPA) and Craiova Army actions, which skeleton consisted of Poles east voivodeships.
Concerning UPA it is necessary to tell, that it was not the state military formation (as it is suggested), that had been fixed by the Nuremberg tribunal. Nevertheless, it is necessary to admit that UPA conducted the armed struggle not only against the German and Soviet armies, but it was at the constant war with the red guerrillas, and exclusively cruel battles occurred with the Polish Craiova Army on the territory of Volhynia, Polesye and Holmshchiny. That confrontation had the big background and was accompanied by ethnic cleanings in the most fanatic form from both parties. Today UPA associates with Stepan Bandera's name, whose surname is translated from the Polish, as the military banner.
Though modern historians suggest that UPA's fights were conducted, both against fascists and the Soviet power, the statistics of the historical validity testifies that UPA had conducted more than forty fights with the German armies and twice with the Soviet guerrillas till November of 1944 when the territory of modern Ukraine was released. And if we should consider September, 2nd 1945 being the date of the Second World War end only after Roman Shuhevich's destruction on March, 5th, 1950, who commanded UPA, the organized resistance in the Western Ukraine went on recession though the separate groups and the underground rests had acted to the middle of 50th years of the last century. The date October 14th, 1942 is suggested as the day of UPA creation. In due course, the relation as in Ukrainian, so in other societies, changed as a whole, if not so cardinally, but on the boundary of the former border - for sure. On the one hand - they are the fighters for freedom and independence, and on the other hand - murderers and hitmen. Borders of regions and borders of consciousness remain invariable till now.

Agitation pamphlet. No comments
The map of UPA military operations made by the historian Petik. So where is the whole Ukraine?
It is a quite fair question, for what and with whom UPA was at war?
The report of the first commander of UPA group is the answer on this question about carrying out of the action against Germans, Soviet soldiers, guerrilla, and also Polish population in June, 1943. Materials from the state archive of Rovno region.
Soldiers of UPA - «it didn't smell» brigades and divisions. But the fighter in the Soviet officer form is visible - whether he removed it from the killed one, or used the military dress for the diversion...
One of not numerous photos of UPA soldiers which, judging by the samples of clothes and arms, by its date is close to the end of 1945. The photo was taken from the site of Ternopol veteran's council of OUN-UPA ... Probably, this is one more evidence that UPA wasn't so "active" in 1941-1944, as it is represented today.
Today, on the historical agenda there is a question of opposition between UPA and Army Craiova (sometimes there is the term - Army Regional) in the Western Ukraine.
UPA and the AK - the confrontation...
Army Craiova (АC), in terms of Polish it was the Fatherland Army or Domestic army, which was the armed formation of the Polish underground during the Second World War, that operated basically within the pre-war territory of the Polish state. The Overall objective of AC was not only organization of the armed resistance to Germany invaders in Poland, but also the counteraction to the Antipolish armed formations in the Western Belarus, Ukraine, and also Lithuania. АC was submitted to the Polish government in exile and it was the basic organization of the Polish Resistance. Concerning АC participation in the fights in the Western Ukraine, it is necessary to note, that its formations occupied the territory created by the German occupational district authorities of "Galicia", including Lvov, Ternopol and Stanislavsky areas. AC and UPA confrontation began in autumn of 1942 when the German authorities started to move Poles from the territory of Ukrainian-Polish boundary corridor and to settle Germans and Ukrainians on their place. The AC answer destroyed hundreds of representatives of the Ukrainian rural elite. In July, 1943 UPA began retaliatory actions against the peaceful Polish population. In total during 1943 and 1944 Ukrainian nationalists killed from 50 to 60 thousand Poles. Such data is resulted by the Polish historians though they are considered underestimated. АC in revenge for UPA actions killed Ukrainian civilians which number by different estimations reaches twenty thousand people that served the creation of the «Volynsk slaughter» term in the historical chronicle.
On January, 19th 1945 the last ordering of АC Leopold Okulitsky issued the order on АC dissolution that was the consequence of the Soviet command requirements and insistent recommendations of the Great Britain.
That is something that preceded «Volynsk slaughter» ...
The given photos are taken from the book of the Polish historian Alexander Korman «The murder of UPA against the Polish people»
The original of the posthumous photo of Rudnitsky family killed by UPA fighters in July, 1943 on Volhynia
On August, 16th 1943. The family of the Poles which were stirred up by UPA fighters 


This is Lutsk voivodeship. The events happened in the night from 7th to 8th of May, 1943. There are three children on the plan: Peter Mekal's Aneli Gvyazdovsky's two sons and - Janush (3 years old) with the broken limbs, Marek (2 years old), pinned up by the bayonets, and in the middle there is Stanislav and Maria Boyarchuk's daughter - Stasya (5 years old) with the open cut tummy and interiors outside, and also with the broken limbs. The crimes were made by OUN - UPA
Speaking about World War II summarizing, I'd rather not forget about the fact, that representatives of the Ukrainian people (however, as well as Russian, Belarus, Caucasian nationalities together with Central Asian, and the Cossacks) also battled in the ranks of Nazi armies. It is a question of notorious 14th voluntary division SS "Galichina" or "vaffen-grenadiers". And this regrettable fact, isn't challenged by somebody, as the «facts are stubborn things», especially, if they are historically confirmed and documented. Today the dual relation to the SS "Galichina" division is observed among the Ukrainian historians. One try to deduce it for the brackets of narrations about the Ukrainian Insurgent Army not to trouble themselves, explaining that ten thousand Ukrainians voluntary registered in the military service to fascists. Others, in aspiration to justify Galitsky citizens, on the contorary connect them with UPA. They say, that having registered in the German division, Ukrainians acquired the legal right to have weapon, after what they left to be a partisan to «Bandera's» against «Germans and councils» (thus, forgetting the Polish and Belarus population). Battalion of diversionary-prospecting actions "Nahtigal" in the terms of German language is "Nightingale" as Germans were fascinated by the the Galits soldiers singing, became the basis of division. On June, 30th, 1941 "Nahtigal" together with German armies entered Lvov where it caused a stir for its cruelty «murder of Lvov professors». This fact was obvious for Soviet, however, as well as for the world historiographies. Further, i.e. later, some fighters of "Galichina" participated in the struggle against guerrillas of Belarus that hasn't been a secret for a long time. An ominous name of the village Khatyn is an example of that, where 118th battalion of the given division caused a stir on March 22nd, 1943. Further there was Rovno and Warsaw ghetto, and also participation in the suppression of Warsaw revolt in autumn, 1944. Well, concerning the active fighting activity, it is necessary to tell that unique fight against Red Army in the Bord area was the unique battle which «Galitsk fighters» lost, instead of retaliatory actions against the peace population of Belarus and Poland. As a result there was the mass capitulation of «SS-men» by Englishmen and Americans, whose many traces are to be search there.
There is the frightening fact that in September, 1991 (i.e. «smack-bang» to the 60 anniversary of «Lvov professors murder») the staff of veterans of SS "Galichina" division was created in Lvov, and in March 2002 Ivano-Frankovsk city council recognised 24 legionaries being the participants of «operations for freedom and independence of Ukraine» quated them to the veterans of the Great Patriotic War that can revolt any European. However if to remember that today those who cut out the peace population are named as the «heroes of Ukraine», rehabilitation of «Galitsk inhabitants» doesn't look so dreadfully. But that is individually, as the history doesn't forget and doesn't forgive the «past mistakes» ...


The draft-age placard of the conscription to the division "Galichina"
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As well as for many «SS-men» Galitsk people had the only one way - to seek safety in flight in the democracy countries.  
Alas, this is an extreme lie. In the village Guta Penyatsky, "Galichina soldiers" "struggled" with the Polish old men and women, but received the repulse from AC fighters. This is an example how the falseness of the history spreads.
On the photo there is an inscription «young man» that is accurately visible on the bandage of the nice young fighter of "Galichina" division.

 Probably it's early to put an end in the question of the war end in Ukraine with the date of September, 2nd 1945, as for the period from the official date of the World War II termination to the definitive peace on the Ukrainian land only according to official data more than twenty thousand people were killed, destroyed, shot and burnt alive ...

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