In such a way the German armies passed to Poland
And Soviet armies in that way ...
On September, 17th of all the same 1939, on the one hand, definitively stopped the existence of the Polish state and on the other hand- gave the impulse to reunion of the West Ukrainian lands to the uniform Ukraine with the people occupying it. From the point of view of international law, the USSR didn't really declare the war on Poland, but only advised the ambassador of Poland in Moscow that taking into account the political situation and the termination of the state structures of Poland activity, the army of WPRА (Workers' and Peasants' Red Army) pass the western border for the purpose of Belarus and Ukrainian population protection of the east areas of the former Poland and the capture of their property under protection. So or nearly so, there was in the note which the assistant of National Commissioner of External Affairs Potemkin tried to hand over to the Polish ambassador (why tried, because the Polish ambassador refused to do it without the consent of Warsaw, and the note had been already brought directly to the building of embassy).
Lvov inhabitants welcome the fact of the West Ukrainian lands acceptance in the structure of the USSR
On September, 28th, of all the same 1939, the well-known «Pact of Molotov-Ribbentrop» appeared in the text of the Germany-Soviet contract «About friendship and border between the USSR and Germany».
On the map of the Soviet Union there were new regions in structure of USSR: Volynsk, Rovno, Lvov, Drogobychsky (nowadays mostly in Lvov, smaller in Ternopol and Ivano-Frankovsk region), Stanislavsky (nowadays Ivano-Frankovsk) and Tarnopolsky region. It is necessary not to forget that except the well-known regions, Kamenets-Podolsk region and Moldavian ASSR for that period were in the administrative-political system of Ukraine.
At the same time, it is necessary to recognise that voluntary joining of the West Ukrainian and West Belarus lands as it had been officially presented, considerably increased not only the territorial sizes, but also increased the number of all population of two republics - modern Ukraine and Belarus.
Till now the historians in the West, and in the East argue about what the Soviet-Finnish war is considered as(sometimes there is a name, as the Soviet-Finnish war): wether the military conflict of the two separate countries of the World War II all period or the independent war, as the Great Patriotic War. But, if to start with chronology of its passage (from November, 30th of 1939 till March, 13th of 1940) and the structure of participants (more than 845 thousand Soviet armies and 300 thousand of Finnish participants) it was the real 105 day war, in more than eight-ten thousand were lost and went missing. In spite of the fact that operations passed far from the Ukrainian lands(from northern coast of Baltic sea to the Polar region) there were many Ukrainians and inhabitants of Ukraine among the dead people (especially it concerns the division of the future hero of Kyiv defence, the general Kirponos M.P). According to the total losses reports of the Soviet armies during that war,there were more than fourteen thousand of the military men called from the territory of USSR (without new, the so-called western territories) among the victims and missing persons.
Kishinev inhabitants greet soldiers-liberators
The period of November 1939- June 22nd, 1941, can be considered the period of peace as a whole, except that on the new boundaries of USSR border and Ukraine accordingly, there were skirmishes, both between the frontier guards of the adjacent parties, and with the floor guerrilla connections of Craiova Army of the former Polish state.
June, 22nd 1941 became not only the next geographical front of the World War II, which received the definition, as the East front, but also the separate kind of the fighting activity, named as the Great Patriotic War. If to speak about the first operations on the Great Patriotic War fronts, i.e. from Barentsev to Black the seas, it is necessary to admit that the fights on the Ukrainian lands were the most scale on the number of armies and set of the technics and arms. As the evidence there is the fact that the Western front (the former special Western military district) territorially providing all Belarus had been crushed by defence for two weeks, and the capital of Belarus - Minsk, in the evening on June, 28th was grasped by the opponent (and actually left by the Soviet command). The same thing, but in the largest time interval, occurred in Baltics.
Concerning Ukraine, the situation was absolutely different then. Despite the plans of Germany in the shortest terms to seize Ukraine as industrially developed region with an agrarian source, the fights on the western boundaries of sovereign country, were hardened and long. As the evidence of that fact were Lvov-Chernovitsky, Kyiv and Donbas-Rostov strategic defensive operations. The armies of Kyiv and Odessa special military districts, which had turned since the beginning of the wars in the Western and Southern fronts, not only constrained the impact of the opponent, but also put it to flight on the certain territories (basically it was on the boundary of Izmail - Reni, against the Romanian armies). By the autumn 1941 the fights in Ukraine and especially in Kyiv defence became not only the symbol of armies and home guards firmness, but also an original change in negotiations with the Great Britain about creation of the uniform block of Union States in the struggle against the world aggression. It is necessary to remember that under the Great Britain insisting the Soviet Union already the same on July, 4th was compelled to recognize Poland, as the state and also the Polish government in emigration having been subjected to aggressions.
Four cities of Ukraine became the real bastions of immortality and symbols of courage and firmness. Kyiv - is the mother of Russian cities. Its defence was necessary, from the military-economic and political point of view. Leningrad completely occupied Belarus, Baltics, the right-bank Ukraine and the enemy under the walls of «revolution cradle». New British allies didn't hasten with the active help rendering and waited for the decision of Kyiv and Ukraine destiny. Today it's already known that in the interests of strategic defence and preservation of the Southwest front parts the Joint Staff led by G.K. Zhukov asked for the permission to leave Kyiv. The answer is known - to defend Kyiv. During the same time the German army had the opposite tasks: to seize Kyiv, to grasp bases on the east coast of Dnepr and by the left front wing to make deep covering maneuver through Belaya Tserkov towards the southeast direction, and then to surround, dismember and destroy the Soviet armies in the Right-bank Ukraine by their own strength. In the second half of July- first half of August, the solving events were developed in Kyiv direction in the strip of the Southwest front. The Soviet command took the urgent measures for the threat elimination, which hung over the capital of Ukraine. But the forces and means were already insufficient. By September, 17th it was clear that Kyiv should be left. And that occurred not as the organized deviation, but as one of the terrible war tragedies. General M.P.Kirponos ordering the front, and his staff lost management over the armies after attempts to break through the noose. Dismembered on groups, the armies were in the heavy struggle in the noose more than weeks. Many of them made the way through enemy barriers, but ten thousand fighters and commanders were lost in unequal fights with the enemy, and one and a half hundred thousand - were taken prisoner. The small river Trubezh which became the border-watershed between opponents was red. The unknown poet, apparently being under the impression of the well-known work «Trubezh roars», wrote such lines as- «Trubezh roars about our destruction ...».
Also the medal for Odessa defence was established
After Odessa abandonment the Soviet armies with fights departed to the East, but in the orderly manner. Kharkov was delivered up; Donetsk was left, and the threat hung over Caucasus. At that particular time on the land of the ancient Chersonese the new defence of Sevastopol took place, simultaneously becoming the symbol of firmness and the tragedy synonym.
The second defence of Sevastopol, the city of glory and worship began on October 30th, 1941. Two storms during the autumn of 41st - summer of 42nd were beaten off. But there had been neither efforts, nor means on the tried storm. In the press and scientific messages there wasn't practically told about the last days of the city defence and tragedy on Chersonese around 35th coastal battery before the beginning of 90th years.
With positions of today's realities, with the addition of prefixes «humanism - above all» it is very difficult to give an estimation to those who made the feat in the field of fight and remained anonymous or to those who «having shown cowardice» went on cooperation with enslavers, who acted against their conscience. But, one thing is obvious the Second World War with all its stages in full amount walked as the terrible asphalt compactor through the all territory of Ukraine, and through its people, accordingly.
Concerning UPA it is necessary to tell, that it was not the state military formation (as it is suggested), that had been fixed by the Nuremberg tribunal. Nevertheless, it is necessary to admit that UPA conducted the armed struggle not only against the German and Soviet armies, but it was at the constant war with the red guerrillas, and exclusively cruel battles occurred with the Polish Craiova Army on the territory of Volhynia, Polesye and Holmshchiny. That confrontation had the big background and was accompanied by ethnic cleanings in the most fanatic form from both parties. Today UPA associates with Stepan Bandera's name, whose surname is translated from the Polish, as the military banner.
Though modern historians suggest that UPA's fights were conducted, both against fascists and the Soviet power, the statistics of the historical validity testifies that UPA had conducted more than forty fights with the German armies and twice with the Soviet guerrillas till November of 1944 when the territory of modern Ukraine was released. And if we should consider September, 2nd 1945 being the date of the Second World War end only after Roman Shuhevich's destruction on March, 5th, 1950, who commanded UPA, the organized resistance in the Western Ukraine went on recession though the separate groups and the underground rests had acted to the middle of 50th years of the last century. The date October 14th, 1942 is suggested as the day of UPA creation. In due course, the relation as in Ukrainian, so in other societies, changed as a whole, if not so cardinally, but on the boundary of the former border - for sure. On the one hand - they are the fighters for freedom and independence, and on the other hand - murderers and hitmen. Borders of regions and borders of consciousness remain invariable till now.
On January, 19th 1945 the last ordering of АC Leopold Okulitsky issued the order on АC dissolution that was the consequence of the Soviet command requirements and insistent recommendations of the Great Britain.
There is the frightening fact that in September, 1991 (i.e. «smack-bang» to the 60 anniversary of «Lvov professors murder») the staff of veterans of SS "Galichina" division was created in Lvov, and in March 2002 Ivano-Frankovsk city council recognised 24 legionaries being the participants of «operations for freedom and independence of Ukraine» quated them to the veterans of the Great Patriotic War that can revolt any European. However if to remember that today those who cut out the peace population are named as the «heroes of Ukraine», rehabilitation of «Galitsk inhabitants» doesn't look so dreadfully. But that is individually, as the history doesn't forget and doesn't forgive the «past mistakes» ...
Probably it's early to put an end in the question of the war end in Ukraine with the date of September, 2nd 1945, as for the period from the official date of the World War II termination to the definitive peace on the Ukrainian land only according to official data more than twenty thousand people were killed, destroyed, shot and burnt alive ...