Two Ukraines – two capitals. From UNR to USSR (1917 – 1941)

Russian Empire, and together with it Ukraine-Russia entered the twentieth «mad century» as Alexander Blok responded about the last century. All troubles and victories of the first decade walked by Moloch on the Ukrainian people. Events on the fields of Manchuria and near Port Arthur didn't put material damage to Ruthenia; to be exact to Ukraine as in 1906 it had been already fixed by our country.
1
As it seen from the signature under the photo, in 1905 in the Russian fleet there was a new mine cruiser with the unusual name «Ukraina», as an estimation of the nice Ukrainian troops merits.
But thousands of Ruthenian-Ukrainians together with the Slavic brothers and non-Christians lay on the fields at Muden, on the hills at Tsinchzou, at the bottom of the Yellow sea and Tsusimsky strait. And, when the echo of tragedies in the East came to the European Russia, and in due course to Ukraine, the anger and discontent wave deduced soldiers-sappers of the lieutenant Zhadanovsky, seamen of a battleship "Prince Potyomkin-Taurian" in Odessa and Lieutenant Schmidt associates in Sevastopol on the streets of Kyiv. There is no sense to retell for a long time known historic facts which were spoken, written and shot films about. But, it is necessary to remember indeed. And to someone holding the power would not prevent not only to remember such pages of history, but also to analyze them.
After the wave of reprisals and «Stolypin ties», and actually gallows which were not practically applied in Ukraine against peasants' revolts, after convocation and dispersals of the State Empire Dumas, from 1908 till 1914, the order was established. But, there were two historical episodes in the history of Ukraine-Russia which consequences could lead to the huge disorders. It is a question of two murders which occurred in Kyiv - murderof Stolypin and Kyiv grammar-school boy Yushinsky. If murder of the first one amazed all Russian Empire, the second one- impressed all Russian international society.
Andrey Jushinsky's murder or Beylis affair was transformed into the all-Russian litigation on the charge of Jew Menahem Mendel Beylis in the ritual murder of the 13-year-old pupil of a preparatory class of Kyiv-Sofia spiritual school of Andrey Yushchinsky on March, 12th, 1911 which could result in an unrestrained wave of the Jewish pogroms about all Russian Empire, and in Ukraine-Ruthenia - in general everywhere. It is known, that the government of Stolypin held that business under the control. And Beylis justification became moral defeat of the Russian government which was seriously compromised.
2        3
This far-fetched affair nearly put the Ruthenian society on the side of the national civil war
Another resonant matter occurred also in Kyiv when on September, 1st 1911 in Kyiv city theatre the chairman of Ministerial council Peter Arkadevich Stolypin was mortally wounded. The attempt on Stolypin in Kiev today is compared to John Kennedy's murder in Dallas. Despite obvious distinctions between the imperial prime minister and the American president, the general consists in that the circumstances of their destruction are shrouded in mystery till now. The secret - is the secret, but the death of the most resolute politician of Empire when the order in the country was obvious, loosened society, up to the beginning of the new world war.
4 
 5               6 
Peter Stolypin and his murderer - Nikolay Bogrov
All subsequent two years Ruthenian society not only discussed these two murders, but also connected them with the world Jewish plot. As it is known from the history, 1913 became not only anniversary in the history of three century boards of Romanovs dynasty, but also the most fruitful on the economic background for Empire, and for Ruthenia for a long time. Even in the political life there was the dug when Ukrainian Duma community appeared as a part of the Third, and then the Fourth State Dumas. By the way, our Ekaterinoslavsky landowner-politician Rodzyanko Mikhail Vladimirovich, one of the community lobbyists, who left the fine memoirs of «Empire Wreck» was the Chairman of those thoughts (read, misters-politicians, there are something to take on arms).
7
The native of the village Popasnoe of Dnepropetrovsk region and Mikhail Rodzyanko.
But 1914 came, and together with it the beginning of serious trials in the life of Ukraine-Russia, not stopping the whole eight years. Already today the military historians, and also historians of the whole world prepare the whole series of researches, publications, monographies and seminars for 2014, devoted to the First World War. For Ukraine and the Ukrainian people (the Russian and Austro-Hungurian empires) that opposition with a bloody slaughter-house was as the «knife against the heart». Till February 1917 Kyiv and a part of the Russian Ukraine were the front districts. The capture of Lviv and Тarnopol (the former name of the present regional center), and then their abandonment transformed Galicia into the long-term theatre of military action - from Brusilovsky break to the Lutsky bag. With pleasure Russian and Ruthenian soldiers went to Galicia, registered as volunteers in the home guard in many cities of Ukraine-Ruthenia, their desire to return to Galicia in the native home was extremely great. Knowing moods of the Ukrainian part of Galicia population, proceeding from the historical rights of Russia to Galicia as sawed-of part of the Kyiv State, and considering primordial aspiration of its population to reunion with brotherly Russia, the Commander-in-chief of the Russian Army, Grand duke Nikolay Nikolaevich on 18th of August 1914 (the reader, please remember this date as in the modern chronology, it is 1th September) appealed to the population with the following:
TO THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE
Brothers! The Court Divine is going! Patiently, with Christian humility during the centuries, the Russian people under the foreign yoke yearned, but it was impossible to break the expectations of freedom neither flattery pined, nor persecution. As the rough stream tears stones to merge with the sea so there is no force which would stop Russian people in their impulse to association. Worth there will be no more subjugular Russia! Vladimir Svyatoy's property, Yaroslav Osmomysl's lands and princes Daniel and Roman, having dumped a yoke, will set up a banner of uniform and inseparable Russia. Worth the Divine Providence will come true, having blesed the business of the great collectors of the Russian lands. Worth the Lord will help the regal anointed, Emperor Nikolay Aleksandrovich of all Russia, to finish the business of Grand duke Ivan Kalita. And you, distressful brotherly Russia, rise on the Сandlemas of Russian host. Released Russian brothers! Everyone will find a place on the bosom of Russia. Not offending the peace people, whatever nationalities they were, not believing the happiness on oppression of foreigners as shvabs (Germans) did it, turn your sword on the enemy, and the hearts to the God, with a pray for Russia and for Russian tsar.

Nikolay

This appeal conceived its action, especially, at the first stages of war. Then, the so-called « positional war »and failures of the Russian army on the whole front (except, perhaps, Transcaucasian) strongly cooled patriotic lifting. But those days that appeal on the force was equal to "golden September" of 1939 ... Though it is necessary to admit that at once Russian was the official language on the Galitsky lands, but it was made, first of all, in order to supersede the Polish language. Let bygones be bygones, such is the truth of the history. In spite of the fact that the war on the Ukrainian earths, "was tightened", there were practically no cases of treachery from Ukrainians. Ten thousand Ukrainians ("Ukrainians-Ruthenians" - under the terminology of those times) were in the Russian army officers, often occupying the highest, i.e. general posts, ordering not only regiments, but also divisions, cases and armies as there were no restrictions to the national sign about what the "converters" of modern history perception like to tell. All of them valorously protected the native land of Russia the Great, White and Small, during the war there were no cases that officers of the Russian army, Ukrainians by origin, passed to Germans or the Austrians by the national-patriotic motives, who promised the kingdom to Ukrainians and had the ready «Ukrainian king-hetman» - one of the relatives of the Austrian Emperor. The best proof that there were no such cases - is that there are no mentions about them in rather rich historical and memoirs literature, including the emigrant. The same can be told as about the officers, so about several millions soldiers-Ukrainians struggling on all fronts in the structure of the Russian Army.
8
Alas, already to the beginning of the seventeenth year the general condition of the uniform state some time ago by the name of Russian Empire had been terrifying. The war drove men from the village, turned the fertile Ukrainian earths into the waste grounds, and the cities - into the mass hospitals and places of spare regiments gathering, of those soldiers who didn't wish to go on the front.
9 
Millions of Russians and Ruthenians remained to lie up on the fields of battles. That tragedy became the beginning, more precisely, the end of Empire wrecks.
The tsar's abdication hadn't yet become the accident, but it was its harbinger. Events of spring of 1917, at last, cleared the feeling of struggle for the Ukrainian autonomy in Ruthenian politicians. The telegram of the member of the State Duma Bublikov about the revolution in Petersburg, sent to Ukraine by the «line of communication» means, i.e. railways, was with the notice on falling of autocracy and appeal to observe calmness and order. But there were no other communiqués and three days Kyiv and the whole Ukraine "ate and were excited" by different hearings, but, actually, didn't know anything authentic. Only after the permission of the Commander-in-chief of Southwest front general Brusilov, the commander of Kyiv military district Hodorovich allowed newspapers to print the message about the events and the capital. Kyiv, and in due course, Ukraine learnt about the revolution that occurred.

10

The political activity, muffled for the period of war of every possible legal and illegal organizations and parties, revived at once and "boiled over", in the direct and figurative sense. There wasn't already any question of new independent state creation in the early spring of the Great October. But, as on magic wand wave, numerous parties and political trends began to appear in Ukraine practically from anything as the mushrooms after the plentiful political downpour. According to the former Ukrainian prime minister of UNR times, Marxist and separatist simultaneously, «there was displays of any wide, mass national movement before the war in Ukraine, when...« hardly the small spark of political active Ukrainian intelligency flickered. Only their name speak about variety of trends, and their leaders: the Ukrainian democratic party, the Ukrainian radical party, Considerably-democratic Ukrainian party, Revolutionary Ukrainian party, Association of Ukrainian Postepentsy, the Union of Liberation of Ukraine (both as in Ruthenia, so in Austro-Hungary), National socialist party, the Ukrainian party of socialist-revolutionary and many others ... The next day, on March, 3rd, by the new style - 17th, in Kyiv municipal duma the representatives of public organizations and parties gathered; they chose the Executive Committee from themselves of 12 members. At that meeting there were, of course, representatives of all revolutionary parties and the organizations as with the falling of the imperial government they had an opportunity to act legally and to take part in the public and political life. That Executive Committee which had been filled up subsequently with the numerous co-optations, within the first three months of revolution actually was the higher authority in Kyiv until that power had been grasped by the Central Rada. The fact that occurred in Kyiv occurred in other provinces of Ukraine. Everywhere created executive committees (provincial, regional, territorial) on places waited for the command from ... Petrograd.
11
In Petrograd they appealed - «make away with Lenin».
In Kyiv during «the anarchy time», despite Provisional government creation, Association of Ukrainian Postepentsy took the initiative in the hands. In order not to create the precedent of "party-political autocracy» in the new central body for which the name Central Rada is accepted, it was decided to enter representatives from social democrats, Ukrainian social-revolutionaries, Ukrainians-military men, Ukrainians-workers, co-operative societies, students, orthodox clergy, from various associations and even societies and coteries of «fans of Ukraine». In some days the societies and coteries "renamed" themselves (and for some reason without "verdict" of the Department of Justice) in political parties, creating, thus, the variety of new Ukrainian organizations, each of them received a place in Central Rada for its representative. It led to that the «list structure» of Rada grew day by day, and, thus, thanks to its constant replenishment, the number of Rada members quickly increased to six hundreds as Rada informed (there the historical experience in numerical structure of the Supreme Rada of Ukraine was apprehended «with understanding»). The official date of Central Rada creation is March, 22nd (by the new style) when it let out the first «Appeal to the Ukrainian people». The desire of Ukraine autonomy creation in its federal union with Russia had been expressed in it in the most distinct form. And the same days Mikhail Sergeevich Grushevsky ascended on the political Olympus of Ukraine-Russia.
    12          13
Perhaps, his image on the banknote where the basic background is the building of Central Rada of the former pedagogical museum is not casual. There is something in it, i.e., so, modern politicians, learn on the history of pedagogics because I feel like saying the words of the heroine of one famous cult Soviet film: «... Don't teach us how to live; you should better keep us going...»
His authority was the highest among the galaxy of young Ukrainian politicians. Well, judge for yourself, after the moving from Lviv he settled in Moscow where he wrote the Ukraine-Russia history. Who else could head the struggle with the well-known «nation's right to self-determination». But he did not use the leader's authority, but selected the way of «listening» to the moods of people. Instead of the Great Prince-leader of Kiev Russia about whom he wrote in articles, Mikhail Grushevsky apealed: «We should hold a hand on pulse of the national life and go in the rhythm of its palpation. It is the law for us, we should submit only to it, it has to be proclaimed to everybody, without regard to, whether it will be pleasant to us or not». But to speak and to hold, are two big differences, as they say.
The whole mass of negotiations of Central Rada management in Petrograd and Provisional government management in Kyiv (even arrival of Kerensky and Tsereteli (don't confuse to the sculptor) solved nothing in the question of autonomy of Ukraine as a part of the Russian republic where everyone already became the citizens ... and didn't resulted to anything, after all it is necessary not to forget the fact, that Central Rada couldn't be a parliament for that simple reason, that nobody selected it... The only one that was selected was the presidium of Central Rada, which chairman was Grushevsky, and two assistants - Vinnichenko and Efremov. Already after the failure of negotiations the first Ukrainian government in which structure there were: Vinnichenko, Petlyura, Martos, Sadovsky and Steshenko (socialist-revolutionaries and Marxists), Khristyuk and Stasyuk (socialist-revolutionaries -populists) and public representative Baranovsky.
14
The first Ukrainian government and the General Secretary of UNR - the most effective for that time.
But events on the open spaces of the former Empire had irreversible consequences. From Petrograd to the smallest district city, the diarchy appeared everywhere, which actually led to the anarchy. Only the brought inertia, established by centuries, mutual relations and way of life, constrained quickly approaching anarchy. But it had already an effect.
Petrograd, Moscow and Kyiv apprehended the events of October, 1917 absolutely ambiguously. Today there is much information in school textbooks and treatises what and in what manner it was made for the establishment of the government system in Ukraine, therefore to give historical disclosing of the given theme, I consider unessesary to give historical disclosure of the given theme, but, in my opinion, it's worth to open some "forgotten" secrets. Neither the first, nor the second Universal of Central Rada appeals to the separation of Ukraine. As the example, concerning «a question of independence» the famous authority of all Ukrainian movement Mikhail Grushevsky on the First Congress of Ukrainians (which nowadays is held more as the congress of foreign Ukrainians or, more precisely, the World congress of Ukrainians) noticed, that: «Ukrainians have no intention to tear off Ukraine from Russia. If they had such intention - they would act sincerely and openly with such slogan. After all they would not risk anything». And only after the events which occurred on a small metric run between Smolny and Zimniy, the most active movement «from Moscow to most suburbs» began.
15 16

The demonstration in Petrograd and Kyiv. The plot is the same ...
Today historians try ostensibly to present us the true photos, on which the historic facts of the statehood development of that time are embodied. I will give a small, but very concrete example, to be exact two photos.
17    18 
On the first one, the building of the pedagogical museum which became the "staff of the national revival», i.e. of the Central Rada which in all sources is represented as the original, but this is the retouched photo. On, the second one, and however what to tell, when the bottom photo is the original. Solving the children's riddle «to find ten differences» we found them at once. The house, the horse and the fence are there, but the further comments are superfluous I think.
But the essence is that everyone waited for an outcome. Kyiv at that time gradually turned to the armed camp in which each party concentrated the forces near the centres: the Staff of the District, the Central Rada and also the Arsenal - citadels of Bolsheviks. The patrols were walking along the city, they were Ukrainian, junker-officer and Bolshevist, and sometimes they arrested each other, but didn't join the huge battles. Then still million Kyiv hid with fear waited, how it would come to an end (please, remind of «Days of Turbines»).
And that was so throughout all period of power transition from Rada, to the Directory, further to Hetmanship, then again to Directory, further to Makhnovschina, then, to division of republic on two parts, with the further division to the whole set. Perhaps it is necessary for our politicians to sit at the school desk and instead of rally acts, to hear some lessons on the history.
The reader, judge yourself. On November, 20th 1917 UNR in the Third Universal declares creation of independent the Ukrainian state, but in the independent-regulated field with Russia. The fourth Universal already on January, 22nd 1918 proclaimed the full independence, and on 9th of February it signs the Brest peace treaty and the end of the war, in which Ukraine did not participate as the independent state.
Today ones don't like to recollect the conclusion of the Brest peace treaty, both in Russia, and so in Ukraine. For Russia it was the shame of the nation and refusal from victorious end of the war, for Ukraine - refusal from possible acquisition of independence. That befell Poland, Czechoslovakia, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (the future Yugoslavia, and now, on the contrary), Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. But there are places where they remember a shame of Brest-Litovsk, but also remember the names of heroes. One of these places is Lukyanovsk memorial on which the last commander-in-chief of the Russian army Nikolay Nikolaevich Duhonin was buried.
19
20   21

The tomb of the last one is under the protection of the Ukrainian legislation. In the days of USSR his name was destroyed on the pedestal. The author's photos.
The same time in Kharkov it was declared about USSR creation, which government was headed by Bulgarian Hristo Rakovsky. Replying it, but under the pretext of articles performance of the Brest peacy treaty, on February, 10th the armies of Germany and Austro-Hungary entered Ukraine. There was a full occupation of Ukraine, together with the Crimea. The initial desire of Kuban Ukrainians to be a part of UNR, after the occupation of the last one, withdrew the application of Legislative Assembly of the People's Republic of China (the Kuban national republic). In Kyiv with the help of Kaiser armies, hetman Skoropadsky came to the power, the Central Rada had been dismissed by March all the same 1918 accordingly, Grushevsky in Sarny managed to declare himself as the President of UNR. During the same time, i.e. in April, there was a new state on the map instead of UNR - the Ukrainian state, and actually, Hetmanate. But it had been existed not long. After the termination, but not capitulations, from the side of Germany and well-known revolution, Skoropadsky with his environment in the German military echelon went straight to Germany (well, there is the tradition, one arrived in carriages, others - left). There the Directory power came. And again there was the war with Denikin on the fields of Ukraine, the yesterday's ally, with the army of USSR (Ukrainian socialist Soviet republic), and then RSFSR. In January the power of the Directory-UNR (the concept Directory as the state association, wasn't admitted at the world level) at the Parisian conference (18 - on January, 21st 1919) they tried to find a world recognition and receive the status of the partner equal in rights, however, the position of the main winners - the Great Britain and France, was unshakable - any independent Ukraine. Despite declaration of unity of Ukraine on January, 22nd 1919 , there was no such association. And again war, already with the armies of neogenic Poland for Lvov and Galicia. The result is known, the army, Lvov, and Galicia were lost. Nevertheless, on August, 30th Directory armies at active support of «Sich Riflemen», i.e. the former Austro-Hungarian citizens, entered Kyiv. It was the last victory of the Directory-UNR. But all right bank had been already under the power of USSR. Already it is accurately visible two Ukraines, two capitals on the map of our country.
22
As it seen from the map of Europe of 1919, Ukraine is put on it as the separate state. But if look narrowly, it is possible to see accurately that its borders, obviously don't correspond to realities of nowadays, and the period of 1921. And still, that map wasn't admitted by the Parisian conference (concerning Lithuania and Ukraine).
Only Poland was the unique country which recognized the Directory-UNR after Petlyura's government officially refused the rights on Lviv and all Galicia. In April 1920 Petlyura concluded even the military alliance with Poland. But already on April, 26th the Red Armies (USSR and RSFSR) took (or, somehow), released Kyiv. And again the war came. Then it was under the direction of the «malicious genius of international revolution» Trotsky with Poland (by the way, he is also our "native, because he came from the present Kirovograd region). The ending is known. After the «miracle on Vistula» not so Workers' and Peasants' of Red Army, but Polish bourgeois-gentlemen, decided the destiny of Ukraine, and Kyiv. But, at last, March of 1921 came. Riga contract was concluded and a new republic with the western borders on the river Zbruch. But, all those years, i.e. from March, 18th, 1921 till August, 22nd, 1992, at the first in Poland, and then (after September of 1939) the government of UNR lived and worked in exile. And only on August, 22nd on the threshold of the first anniversary of definitive independence, the President of UNR in exile Nikolay Plavyuk passed the «Reading and writing to board» to the President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk on behalf of the government UNR, being in exile. There was the destiny of Central Rada, general Secretary of UNR, Hetmanate of the Ukrainian State and the Directory. And that was happening during three years ...
23

Apparently, the given map doesn't need the comments. Now we'll pass to the question of the unity day of Ukraine or to the «Act of Zluka». The wish of two Ukrainian lands association with the Ukrainian people was apprehended on the highest spirit rise. Both politicians, and officials, and those simple people who suddenly became the citizens, sincerely went to the present Sofia area of Kyiv to tell at the monument to Bogdan Khmelnitsky- we want to be together. It was so, indeed. But, not absolutely in such manner, as it is presented to us. Kyiv was not the "Capital" of two Ukrainian associations and two republics, i.e. UNR and ZUNR, but for that time the small district town Fastov, where in the carriage of Vinnichenko train the contract on reunion was signed, and the mass action for which our capital is famous today was held in Kyiv.

24
And this is the map, on which the Directory-UNR pretended to.
25
Grushevsky, Vinnichenko, Petlyura - all together and all nearby. In my opinion, it has recently repeated ...

26

And this is the very carriage «Vinnichenko - Petlyura» as the local regional specialists assure, in which «the Act of Zluka» was signed. In due course, it became the unique worldwide carriage-capital on the wheels, as wherever it came, the new capital appeared as: Fastov, Zhitomir, Berdichev, Sarny, Kaments-Podolsk. But there were no reunion of Ukraine. And the reason was not only in the objective factors occurring on the fronts of the First World War, but except declaration it was necessary to take certain measures, including, the force one. To tell that neogenic Ukrainian parts, also propagandized at the front, as well as purely Russian parts, spoiled for the fight in new fights - means, to tell lies to you.
It's necessary not to forget about such factor, as the Galitsk-Austrian influence, both on soldiers, so on politicians. Today the instructions of Vienna that «introduction of Galitsk influences on affairs and thoughts of Kyiv should lead to definitive branch of Podkarpatsky and Zakarpatye Russia, and the whole Ukraine from Russia» are not the secrets any more. As the number of historians don't wish to recollect the «marching orders», but nevertheless it is necessary, and apparently, not «the hand of Petrograd» is guilty in the split, but absolutely another capital.
And if the first divisions of Army UNR consisted of Ukrainian soldiers and officers, spare regiments and a part of the arrived from front, in due course, there would be divisions of "SS". The reader, don't be frightened. It is a question of not those «SS members», but about «Sich Riflemen». So, almost all supervising posts in groups of «Sich Riflemen» were occupied by natives of Galicia.

27 28

There is one more example below how the real historic facts are "altered". In one solid edition (I won't name it as I hope, it will rectify its error) two these photos are located nearby, and the text under them says something like «Sich Riflemen and group of «Sich Riflemen», protecting the Central Rada. Really, at the left «Sich Riflemen» are represented, and on the right - the group of Central Rada protection, but it was the «Majestic Varta», i.e. in the literal translation - «the State protection». All paradox of Ukrainian history of that period consists of paradoxes which are very favourable to someone. Instead of taking history lessons in the global scale and not repeating the past errors, the "street organ-blende" is fobbed off to someone- it plays beautifully, but the voice is artificial.
I have resulted these or that facts only for that they wouldn't speak about only UNR and ZUNR existence on open spaces of Ukraine and that about DKR (Donetsko-Krivorozhsk republic ), in order that our children and grandsons remember about Odessa republic and Crimean. Then there will be a full truth of history (even, relative).

29

30

It was 1919, the power had been still searched in Ukraine. It is being searched even today ... (From the archives of Kamenets-Podolsk museum).
 Really, the conversations on the state form in Ukraine had been conducting for all those three years, which basic characters were Grushevsky, Vinnichenko, Skoropadsky and Petlyura.

31

             32         33

Vladimir Vinnichenko, as the first prime minister of UNR was close to UNR creating, even in that format in what the republic was. But his environment, and in due course former «dear friends», destroyed even that could appear on political arena ...

34

Vinnichenko's universal which remained on the paper, in the direct and figurative sense.
35  36

Pavlo Petrovich Skoropadsky truly served the tsar-father and Germen, but didn't serve to Ukraine...

the financial life of UNR. As it is known, since the First Universal the necessity of independent or federal creation of UNR had been declared. And, though a number of historians are not agree with me, but the variant with UNFR (the Ukrainian national federal republic) was considered very seriously. And from the history of the world development it is also known that independence of the country arises only when its economy and financial system is independent.
Today in the markets of «far olden time» it is possible to see many banknotes of UNR, as grivnas, so karbovantsy.

        37   38

                                  39

Very seldomt it is possible to see the denomination face value in 100 Karbovanets of UNR of the end of 1917.

40
This banknote is interesting that it had just been released by the day of UNFR creation, and its text support was been designated in four languages: Ukrainian, Russian, Polish and Yiddish languages. There is such forgotten history.
41

As well as Karbovantsy of DKR.

There is something else that I would rather wish to note, concerning the theme of that time. Today the young generation of our power doesn't really esteems the Soviet period films, but among them there are also that films, which are actual even today. I'm speaking about the film «Wedding in Malinovka», directed by Andrey Tutyshkin and produced under the operetta with the same name of Boris Aleksandrov in which, in the funny tone, but, unfortunately, with truth elements, it is said that the power had changed and whoever comes, they would plunder...

42

Even today, forty years later from the date of coming out, that masterpiece of the Soviet cinematography caused such fun that the tears slided on cheeks. But, the dear reader, those were the truth tears, as one more misfortune happened Ukraine in the first years of severe twentieth - gangsterism. From the former order bearer Nestor Petrovich who became the Father Mahno to ataman Tutyunnik, an ominous symbol of «fire and a sword». That misfortune, under the various data, carried away thirty thousand lives and, basically, the lives of peace peasants. And all that happened for the years of the First World War, civil war, and interventions in the struggle against gangsterism Ukraine lost more than two millions sons and daughters. There is such terrible arithmetic of death.

43 

Krasko Mahno with Dybenko and the father.

45

And that is an ominous order of Tyutyunnik.

There is also one more feature connected from the times of civil war and intervention (it's necessary not to forget about occupations of Kyiv, Odessa, Sevastopol, Crimea ...) and gangsterism - that was the suffering of the peace population from every possible requisitions. Today it is told with ecstasy about the so-called actions of Red Guards groups and Special Forces on peasants' de-kulakization and taking away the grain surplus that was really terrible. But that wasn't the "know-how" of the new power, but the idea, still embodied by Peter Skoropadsky. In the document of July, 15th 1918 which had been presented, for first time, on the general review, it was accurately told (translated from Ukrainian) that: «persons, who evade from voluntary delivery of bread, are exposed to requisition». So the history hadn't yet thought up anything new.

46

Then the bread was taken away, and after...

Some words about the notorious problem of language which in those days, came out on the struggle foreground. The undertaken by Rada steps to "Ukrainization" of schools, court and administrative agencies didn't find the population's response. Numerous protests fell down, the abhorrence to the Ukrainization in the majority of population was defined, both in the cities, so in villages, especially in the right banks. Kyiv Vladimir University, Polytechnic institute, Spiritual Academy, representatives of court and city administrations, the municipal dumas of almost all cities of Podneprovsky Ukraine and numerous self-justices in the villages protested. When in Kyiv, under the request of Central Rada, it was declared about the opening of grammar school with Ukrainian language training and the pupils' registration, among the million population of Kyiv there was more than hundreds of them, wishing to win admission to the grammar school, that is recognized by Ukrainian historians, explaining it as the result of violent russification. But it is necessary to remember that Kyiv in those first months of revolution was quickly filled with Galitsk-Ukrainian citizens. Their part made the way from Austro-Hungary through the front which had already started to decay, the part arrived from the prisoner-of-war camps ("the kind" Provisional government released everyone: political criminals, prisoners of war who received the definition as «baby birds Kerensky»), and also from the moving places of Galitsk refugees, sent in the first months of war of adherents of Austro-Hungary and the Polish autonomy received the general designation». So the Austrian colonel Miller and the captain of the Austro-Hungarian Ukrainian Cossacks Konovalets found themselves in Kyiv. Both Miller, and Pilsudsky served in one regiment ... those Galitsk Ukrainians considering themselves an elite of the Ukrainian culture, pressed by the «word and body» on appeared on the crest of revolutionary wave, young men-socialists and neogenic intelligency demanded an immediate Ukrainization of all life, certainly, only under their instructions and management. By the way, even in our Kotlyarevsky's native purely Ukrainian language and Shevchenko, the Galitsk words of the type «militiamen» appeared. The wide circles of the population didn't feel them friendly and treated them watchfulness and even hostile. But aggressiveness of Galitsk people, in connection with ambition and thirst of the power of yesterday's students, small employees and semiintellectuals, did their business - Central Rada quickly extended, expanded and deepened its power and the language in Ukraine, as well as it is necessary by «fire and a sword».
The instructions of the Central Rada, and then Directory-UNR, obliged to learn at schools exclusively Ukrainian language but the document of that time testifies how it occurred, and, if to get a grasp attentively, it had the elements of « Galitsk pronunciation - spelling», again as the type of «provincial».

47
48

Having continued the theme of the beginning of fatal twentieth years, I would like to say some words about that military-fighting episode of the «Second Ukrainian Ruins» times, which today is on hearing from "young to old", namely, about the fight under Kruty. Today this place became an original Mecca for the young soldiers of Armed forces of Ukraine, but it became more significant for the leaders of «orange revolution». At once there comes a question, what this fight is famous for and what actually it is.

49

Memorial under Kruty

The given battle or the armed conflict occurred on January, 29th (on January, 16th according to the old style) of 1918 at the railway station about the settlement Kruty on 130 kilometers from Kyiv. Then, and nowadays it is Chernigov area. The given battle or again, the armed conflict occurred between Mikhail Muravyev's group of socialist-revolutionary (instead of the communist-Bolshevik) and the group of UNR Army, sent towards to coming ones for the «protection of approaches to Kyiv». Despite the importance of the event there is no authentic description of it. There are various versions of the parties, and these versions are inconsistent. According to the data as historians, so Wikipedia in the morning on January, 16th the group of the Baltic sailors of red guards unexpectedly got under the fire of cadets and Kyiv students, supported by the gun-fire. The fight was fastened not in favor of the defending side i.e. the student-junkers group. Some time later the defending part receded and the advancement of the coming ones had been stopped by preliminary disassembled iron-road ways (the interesting fact that till now there is no answer that disassembled rails). In connection with the started strong blizzard the part of Kyiv group of UNR Army was grasped and shot. There is an information about eight wounded defending people, who in due course, were sent in Kharkov where nobody became interested in them, and they disappeared from hospitals where they were arranged on treatment. According to the military historian Yaroslav Tinchenko, the main expert in Kruty, 420 persons participated in fights from outside UNR Armies: 250 officers and cadets of 1st Ukrainian military school, 118 students and grammar-school boys from 1st hundreds of Student's kuren, about 50 local free Cossacks, basically, the former officers and volunteers. That day only some people were lost, and the others, carrying away the bodies of their companions, receded to echelons and left to Kyiv. And only one platoon from student's hundred as a part of 34 persons was taken prisoner by their own oversight. Six of them were wounded; one was the son of the machinist mobilized by coming ones. All were got in the train and sent to Kharkov (subsequently they would be rescued from the captivity). 27 of the remained persons at station were shot.
As to quantity of victims from the defending party, except mythical «three hundred Spartans» of Grushevsky the different figures were named. So, Doroshenko resulted the list of names of the lost 11 students though he said that some of them had been lost earlier, besides 27 captured which were included into the prospecting group that departed to Kruty, when the red army had seized the station were shot. In 1958 in Munich and New York in the publishing house «Shliah molodі» the results of S.Zbarazhsky's 40-year-old research were printed. At 40-unniversary of the great rank January 29, 1918 - January 29, 1958» (some historians used the data of Soldatenko, Timchenko and Wikipedia so "zealously" that in the literal sense they repeat the same error, naming the last date, as January, 29th 1956). In the list there were named 18 persons. The losses of attacking soldiers probably were too, but the death-roll is not established yet.
The estimations of this fight are various accordingly. The truth is only that politicians from the power threw boys under the bullets and where the vaunted «Sich Reflemen» and the heroes of Lvov were? Yes, the young men who didn't have time to smell of gunpowder on the fronts of the First World War in the sincere impulse of Kyiv protection came out on their last fight. Their youthful maximalism with a rifle in their hands as then so today is skillfully used in the ambitions of certain political forces.
I won't be engaged in the controversy, but I will simply result the events estimations of those days contemporaries and historians of our days. That is how the former chairman of the general secretary of Central Rada of UNR Dmitry Doroshenko (by the way, he was the great-great-grandson of Doroshenko and Natalia Goncharova's relative whose words should be trusted) describes these events: «When from the side of Bahmacha and Chernigov Bolshevist echelons moved to Kyiv, the government couldn't send any military unit for the repulse. Then they hastily gathered the group from students and grammar-school boys of the senior classes and threw them, literally, on the slaughter, towards perfectly armed and numerous forces of Bolsheviks. Unfortunate youth was taken to the station of Kruty and landed them on "positions". When the young men (who in their majority had never controled over the guns) fearlessly opposed approaching Bolshevist groups, their heads, the group of officers, remained in the train and arranged the wine party in the carriages; Bolsheviks without effort broke the group of the youth and sent it to the station. Having seen the danger, those who were in the train, hastened to give the signal for departure, they didn't stay for any minute to grasp the running ones ... The way to Kyiv was absolutely opened then».

50

Estimations of the contemporaries.
1. In the contemporary Ukraine it has already became the custom in the end of January of each year to draw the public attention to the episode which happened at the height of the revolutionary crisis, - the fight under Kruty. It seems that it is possible to recreate for certain picture of that actually occurred almost for nine decades (the nine and one year has already passed) and, eventually, unbiased, to qualify both actually episode, and much wider problem with which it (this episode) covers extremely boldly.
2. However the fight under Kruty, obviously, concerns to those phenomena round which the vital true, its amazing transformation to please the politics and tactical use of hardly issued as a result of the palliative made up a bundle initially.
3. Having got the certain inertial self-sufficiency, in the Ukrainian historiography the event under Kruty received the hypertrophied estimations, acquired myths, and began to be equated to the well- known feat of Spartans near Fermopily, all 300 young men, among them 250 students and grammar-school boys more often began to be called as the victims. In the absence of other vivid examples of national consciousness and sacrifice display, all address more actively to this event, realising the educational actions, especially in the environment of youth.

51
The given photo is presented as the funeral of Kruty heroes.
But I am compelled to introduce the small corrective amendments in its plot. Funeral of heroes really was. Almost all armies of the world recognized the heroism of the plunged opponent and arranged the worthy seeing-off to them. Precisely in that manner they treated the yesterday's students, who had been lost at the trip. The permission to opening of tombs and a reinterment of victims were given. This photo just represents this episode. But the essence is that in Kyiv on the Lukyanovsky cemetery only two were buried; two Vladimirs - Shulgin and Naumovich (as one was the nephew of minister of UNR Shulgin, and other was his friend). Today their tomb is under the state protection. The tomb of other victims is lost forever.
52
Here two of eighteen young men found their quietness...
 
53
1922 was relatively quiet. The calmness was, basically, in the central and eastern regions of Ukraine while on the western border there were constant "borderline cases", not from the Polish party, but with the former White Guards, Sich Reflemen, «Tutyunnik's eagles», Savinkov's "gangsters" etc. Such state of affairs on the foreign policy level, taking into account the decisions of Lozannsky conference (it was devoted not only to the questions of straits), confirming the decisions of Riga about Galicia entrance to the structure of the Second Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, compelled the Ukrainian authorities to sign the Allied contract on December, 30th 1922, according to which, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic together with RSFSR, the Belarus Soviet Socialist Republic and Transcaucasian RSFSR was a part of the USSR.
54

The map of the Ukrainian socialist Soviet republic before entering the USSR. As it seen from the map, Taganrog and Shahtinsky district are still the part of Ukraine.

Today the question of Union State creation is again lifted on the board of the historical community, but there are no reasons for doubting in the First conference-congress power of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics. In that case, everything had been made according the law.
Notwithstanding they say today, from the moment of USSR creation and Ukraine entering in it, the life, as they say, began to improve. The New Economic Policy and introduction of new managing methods in the state economy brought its results. Considering «numerous workers' wishes» in July, 1924 Taganrog and Shahtinsky districts were passed in the structure of RSFSR, and southern areas of present Kherson were the part of Ukraine. In October, 1925 according to the decision of the Central Electoral Committee of the USSR «About the settlement of Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic borders with RSFSR and Belarus Soviet Socialist Republic» the demarcation of allied borders was only two years later, however, the modern politicians of sister republics have been not being able to do it during eighteen years. The cultural life of the country also improved. In the areas with the prevailing Ukrainian population, not only schools, but also all establishments «worked in the Russian mode», at the same time Russian language was absolutely equal in the dialogue and office-work, and in the south and the east - it was the core. Actually, in the first years after the civil war and intervention, the Soviet localization policy (i.e. considering of the Ukrainian indigenous population opinion) led to the increase of the Ukrainian schools, technical schools, factory schools, technical training college prototypes) and, certainly, high schools. The Soviet Ukrainian power pursued the policy under the slogan «national under the form, Soviet under the maintenance». However in the late twenties the management of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks changed the general policy, the Communist Party of Ukraine undergone to the cleaning because of the «nationalist bias». The alignment of the "language barrier» began, therefore the Ukrainian language became "cores" on the left coast of Dnepr, i.e. in northern sector, and Russian language on the right and in the south accordingly. And the reason is not only in the decisions of the «party and the government», but in the fact that the country, policy and the language were common.
In general, the boundary of 20 - 30th years was shaking, from the point of view of shocks for all people of the USSR, and not only Ukraine. With the New Economic Policy termination, the searches of "the first wreckers party" began, that poured out in the affair of Industrial party, which basic dismantling, were held on Donbas.
55
   
56
 
That process became the beginning of the "big terro", under the western classification or the reprisals network under domestic.
The events of 1932-1933 united in one word "Holodomor" became another grief and tragedy of the USSR people, particularly of the European parts. It is unpleasant for me to see, how some politicians, who are absolutely far from the history, classify this event and give the estimation to it. What else we can be speak about if in 1934 the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks (with all responsibility declared that the hunger became the tragedy of the people of east and southern Ukraine, Volga region, Northern Caucasus, and some areas of Kazakhstan. And it is senselessly to argue about this theme, at least, because the archival documents testify:

57

58
59
There were and there are more terrible documents on the facts of self-courts and anthropophagism. There was in the history, and the people's tragedy is not to be thrown out. Another thing, whether it was a genocide or not.

60

It is compelled to result the small legal inquiry, concerning the definition of the genocide term. So, according to the official treatment the genocide (the term includes the Greek word - "sort" and the Latin word "I kill") is nothing but, the actions made with intention to destroy in full or partly any national, ethnic, racial or religious group by means of: murders of this group members; causings of damage to their health; violent hindrance to the child-bearing; compulsory transfer of children; or another creation of the vital conditions, calculated on physical destruction of this group members.
Concerning the last definition today there are a lot of disputes and interpretations. It's dangerous to say unequivocally that there was a concrete adjustment on the destruction of the Ukrainian people, as from the ethical point of views so from the standard-legal side. After all there are no documents particularly specifying on such actions, both concerning Ukraine, regions of the Russian Federation and areas of Kazakhstan.

61

Therefore, silly and criminally to deny the facts that took place, but the historians (the real historians ...) should understand and give the historical-legal estimation to this question. Also it is necessary to notice that 30th years became rather inconsistent period in the history of Ukraine in which such scale heteropolar events, as de-kulakization, collectivization, Holodomor and industrialization, Stalin reprisals and creation the largest industrial and centers of science occurred in Ukraine. All of that have been, and all is already our history, which we should not only know, but to remember, and to take on «political arms» as the latest events in Ukraine show.

62

63
64                      65

Dnepr hydro-electric power station and the Belomor-channel. The company is crash, and its price is 5 kopecks ...

66

There were all: Ukrainians, Byelorussians, Russians, Tadjiks, Georgians, and Jews, briefly, it is an instruction, being the reminder for us.
67
68

That is also necessary to remember
69

70

That is also the history which is impossible to forget

Terror and reprisals of 30th years in the «full amount» spread about the territory of Ukraine, as the result many Ukrainian politicians, writers and representatives of creative intelligency were destroyed. Today these names are famous, but many places of their last rest are still unknown. I would like to give one more interesting example.

71

In 1933 the famous Ukrainian poet-humorist Ostap Vyshnya, his real name was Pavlo Gubenko, was condemned for the creation of the terrorist group, which purpose was Postyshev's murder, the secretary of Central Committee Communist Party of Ukraine, as the Holodomor's organizer according to the group opinion. All received ten years; from 1933 to 1943 he was serving time in jail for «9 to 5». That was also the history, terrible and gloomy.
1934 became the year of the beginning of the new reprisals which "catalyst" was the murder of Kirov. But there was also one more fact, i.e. carrying over the capital of Ukraine from Kharkov to Kyiv, and that event took place in 1934 on June, 23rd. With what such decision was connected? All the matter that in Ukraine, still «two Ukraines» and «two capitals», remained namely: both the left and the right-bank part and Kyiv - as the historical and cultural capital, and Kharkov - as the administrative-industrial. The decision was justified from the point of view of return to primordial pearls of Russia; in addition, the desire of the Soviet government to reduce the republic Ukrainization was visible. It is difficult to answer the question what was more there, but, in my opinion, Kiev had the profit from it, as it proves to be true today. Well, concerning the new-old capital, I wish to notice that as of 1936 in my fine ancient Kyiv there was a lot of everything - from the Ukrainian schools to the Jewish theatres.

72

Today this is the building of the Cabinet of Ukraine, and some time ago it was the building of ominous People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs of USSR.
73

At that time in the Western Ukraine which, mostly, was as the part of Poland, the policy of Polonization was carried out, the national oppression amplified, and the mass "sedentism" of retired Polish military men in eastern voivodeship, i.e. primordially West Ukrainian took place. The lifting of the nationalist movement which at once accepted violent forms became the answer to it. With Juzef Pilsudsky's coming to power as a result of revolution in Poland of 1926, on the eastern, i.e. «suburban» lands the authoritative mode, which is known as «sanitation» was established. The political opposition was pursued by legal means and force methods. In relation to the national minorities the policy of «cultural suppression» which in autumn of 1930, after numerous provocations and acts of terrorism of the Ukrainian nationalist organizations concerning the Polish population, outgrew in mass reprisals against the Ukrainian population of Galicia and Volhynia was spent. Divisions of the Polish police and army entered more than 800 villages, more than two thousand persons were arrested, the Ukrainian organizations were liquidated, and half-thousand houses were burnt out. The Ukrainian pogroms from outside the Polish chauvinistic groupings became component. Things came to such a pitch that in 1932 the League of the Nations condemned actions of the Polish government in relation to the Ukrainian population.

74

Even the American newspapers of the Ukrainian diaspora didn't disregard such state of affairs.

It is also necessary to recollect that the former Podkarpatsky Russia, and during that period, independent Carpathian Ukraine being the part of Czechoslovakia, as a result of the Munich arrangement and Czechoslovakia division was grasped in 1939 by Hungary.
1939 came. It was the year of reunion and beginning of the century war. The same time the Soviet Union, Ukraine and Belarus together with it, came out on the new borders which should have been protected. To protect by «all world, all people and all country».

75

The photo from the exhibition «The Second World War Posters» which exposition is exposed in the National museum of history of the Great Patriotic War.

Обращаем Ваше внимание, что мнение редакции портала UKRAINE-IN может не совпадать с мнением авторов. На портале размещены статьи историков из разных стран, которые могут по-разному интерпретировать события. Также просим Вас воздержаться от агрессивных и нецензурных комментариев.
Comments:
blog comments powered by Disqus

All articles